Principal Names: TAR (HIV) RNA-binding protein 2, HIV-Transactivating response RNA-binding protein, TRBP, Official Gene Symbol: TARBP2 TRBP belongs to the family of dsRNA-binding proteins. It consists of highly conserved 2 dsRNA-binding domains and C-terminal basic region. It is a unique cellular protein capable of binding to HIV-TAR RNA and stimulates expression of HIV-1 long terminal repeats. It also inhibits the host antiviral and anti-proliferative mechanisms by directly binding to IFN-regulated dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR). TRBP associates with Ago2 protein and forms an integral component of Dicer-containing complex. It has a role in micro RNA processing and in RISC assembly. Other functions of TRBP include promoting cellular growth and tumorigenesis.