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Human GHRL Protein expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) - ABIN413323
Iantorno, Chen, Kim, Tesauro, Lauro, Cardillo, Quon: Ghrelin has novel vascular actions that mimic PI 3-kinase-dependent actions of insulin to stimulate production of NO from endothelial cells. in American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism 2007
Human GHRL Protein expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) - ABIN620667
Ferro, Gutiérrez-Gallego, Bosch, Farré, Segura: Fit-for-Purpose Radio Receptor Assay for the Determination of Growth Hormone Secretagogues in Urine. in Journal of biomolecular screening 2015
Upregulation of unacylated ghrelin levels in mdx (zeige DMD Proteine) mice reduces muscle degeneration, improves muscle function, and increases dystrophin (zeige DMD Proteine)-null satellite cells (SC) self-renewal, maintaining the SC pool.
These findings suggest that phasic activation of the SNc-ghrelin system could improve the dysregulation of nigrostriatal DA transmission related to the initial stage of PD, but not the motor deficits under the depletion of nigrostriatal DA. Although GHSRs are found in non-DA cells of the SNr, GHSRs on DA neurons in the SNc may play a crucial role in motor function.
it showed that the antinociception of ghrelin was correlated with the GHS-R1alpha and d-opioid receptors. Finally, the antinociception induced by deltorphin II wasn't blocked by the co-injection (i.c.v.) of [D-Lys (zeige LYZ Proteine)(3)]-GHRP (zeige GHSR Proteine)-6, indicating that the GHS-R1a isn't on the backward position of delta opioid receptor.
Deletion of ghrelin prevents aging-associated obesity and muscle dysfunction without affecting longevity.
ghrelin binds to serum albumin (zeige ALB Proteine) and that this interaction impacts on the biological activity of the hormone.
Fasting upregulates Fpn1 (zeige SLC40A1 Proteine) expression in spleen and peritoneal macrophages, probably via a ghrelin/GHSR1a/MAPK (zeige MAPK1 Proteine) signaling pathway.
ghrelin has a critical role in preventing hypoglycemia and promoting survival during severe caloric restriction, a process that requires cell-expressed beta1AR (zeige ADRB1 Proteine)
findings show that the capacity of circulating ghrelin to acutely induce gastric emptying in mice requires the integrity of the area postrema, which contains a population of GABA neurons that are a target of plasma ghrelin
Des (zeige DES Proteine)-acylated ghrelin reduced blood-brain barrier disruption in vivo and attenuated the hyper-permeability of mouse cerebral microvascular endothelial cells after oxygen glucose deprivation.
des (zeige DES Proteine)-acyl ghrelin produces an anxiogenic effect under nonstressed conditions, but this switches to an anxiolytic effect under stress
Study suggests that ghrelin promotes the growth and osteogenic differentiation of rBMSC primarily through the ERK1/2 pathway.
Data show that ghrelin was identified in cultured differentiated adipocytes, but did not influence either preadipocyte proliferation or differentiation, indicating that it may have other adipose-related roles.
data provides evidence for the first time in fish of a possible modulatory role of ghrelin on the metabolic regulation by fatty acid of food intake occurring in the hypothalamus
The level of serum ghrelin might be a biomarker of executive function and become a strong predictor of executive function impairment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Study found three gene variants (CLOCK-rs4864548, PEMT (zeige PEMT Proteine)-rs936108, and GHRELIN-rs696217) that exhibited uncorrected gene-by-sleep duration interactions in relation to BMI z-scores in a cohort of New Zealand European children. However, no interactions were identified in percentage body fat differences. Notably, these interactions are evident without detectable effects on sleep duration.
In short, thin children, despite elevated ghrelin production, the low IGF-I (zeige IGF1 Proteine) concentration is observed, probably due to undernutrition and worse IGF-I (zeige IGF1 Proteine) formation. In short, normal-weight children and in short, obese ones, ghrelin and IGF-I (zeige IGF1 Proteine) production is normal, and it seems that mechanisms responsible for their short stature are other than low IGF-I (zeige IGF1 Proteine).
Ghrelin is involved in appetite-regulating pathways during depression.
Data suggest that subjects with anorexia nervosa display broad spectrum of physical activity (2479-26,047 steps/day) which shows a negative correlation with plasma kisspeptin levels and a positive association with plasma ghrelin levels.
ghrelin was able to activate the proteasome in neural cells playing also a role in the interplay between the ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy.
The G/G genotype of the A-604G SNP in the GHRL gene is associated with altered serum ghrelin levels and obesity.
Ghrelin SNPs rs26802, rs10490816, and rs696217 were not associated with risk for metabolic syndrome in Chinese Han population.
Carrying a G to T substitution in rs696217 preproghrelin gene seems to mark a successful weight loss outcome after gastric bypass in morbidly obese patients
Low plasma ghrelin level is associated with mild cognitive impairment in type 2 diabetic patients.
GHRL is an important candidate gene that may be used to identify genetic variations that influence traits of economic importance in beef cattle
Single nucleotide polymorphisms identified in the promoter region of the ghrelin gene could cause changes in the putative transcription factor (zeige TCF19 Proteine) binding sites.
The effects of dietary energy on the metabolism of ghrelin, leptin (zeige LEP Proteine) and growth hormone secretagogue receptor (zeige GHSR Proteine) in blood and tissues of steers are reported.
ghrelin declined after glucose infusion and before the insulin (zeige INS Proteine) peak; post-nadir surge in ghrelin may be regulated by the decline in circulating concentrations of glucose and nonesterified fatty acids
present findings suggest that ghrelin may play an important role in regulation of mammary function in lactating dairy goats via GHSR (zeige GHSR Proteine)-1a
These expression data may indicate that factors other than ghrelin and leptin (zeige LEP Proteine) are more involved in the regulation of feed intake in pigs apparently acclimated to heat stress.
slc30A8 (zeige SLC30A8 Proteine) colocalizes with ghrelin and motilin (zeige MLN Proteine) in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs
Studied an alternative vascular approach to the modulation of gastric ghrelin levels..
Obestatin enhances proliferation and differentiation of preadipocytes promoting PPARgamma (zeige PPARG Proteine) and C/EBPa (zeige CEBPA Proteine) expression, and inhibiting preadipocyte apoptosis by decreasing expression of Caspase-3 (zeige CASP3 Proteine), Caspase-7 (zeige CASP7 Proteine) and Caspase-9 (zeige CASP9 Proteine).
The expression of ghrelin in the digestive tract of low birth weight and normal weight piglets is reported.
Data suggest that a dietary factor (here, high levels of dietary copper) is able to up-regulate expression of ghrelin in the fundic gland of growing pigs; the diets tested in this study also increase feed intake and promote weight gain.
Ghrelin immunolocalization in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs at different ages were studied and it was concluded that gastric ghrelin expression is not related merely to age but could also potentially be influenced by food intake.
BsrI polymorphism at the ghrelin gene locus is potentially associated with carcass and meat quality traits.
Plasma concentrations of ghrelin were greater before feeding and decreased after feeding in pigs fed once per day; there was no consistent pattern to ghrelin secretion in the ad libitum fed group.
glucose output by primary porcine hepatocytes in suspension culture, after incubation with acylated ghrelin (AG), unacylated ghrelin (UAG), and hexarelin (HEX).
This gene encodes ghrelin-obestatin preproprotein, which generates ghrelin and obestatin. Ghrelin is an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor and is involved in regulating growth hormone release. Obestatin was initially reported to be an endogenous ligand for the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR39 and was involved in satiety and decreased food intake\; however, these findings are controversial. Recent reports show that obestatin is involved in inhibiting thirst and anxiety, improving memory, regulating sleep, affecting cell proliferation, and increasing the secretion of pancreatic juice enzymes. Alternative promoters and alternative splicing result in multiple transcript variants, some of which encode different protein isoforms and some of which do not encode a protein but may regulate the ghrelin-obestatin preproprotein expression. In addition, antisense transcripts for this gene have been identified and may also function in regulation of the ghrelin-obestatin preproprotein expression.
, growth hormone secretagogue
, growth hormone-releasing peptide
, motilin-related peptide
, ghrelin, growth hormone secretagogue receptor ligand
, ghrelin/obestatin preprohormone
, prepro-appetite regulatory hormone
, Appetite-regulating hormone
, Growth hormone secretagogue
, Growth hormone-releasing peptide
, GH releasing peptide
, motilin related peptide
, growth hormone receptor