Ribonucleotide reductase is essential for the production and maintenance of the level of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) required for DNA synthesis. It is an enzymatic complex consisting of two nonidentical subunits, R1 and R2, which are inactive separately. R2, the smaller subunit, is localized to the cytoplasm. R2 is the limiting factor of the catalytic activity of the ribonucleotide reductase enzymatic complex. R2 expression is strictly correlated to the S-phase of the cell cycle, whereas R1 remains constant throughout all phases of the cell cycle. While R2 seems to be involved solely in the maintenance of dNTPs for DNA replication, a similar protein, p53R2, has been shown to be responsible for the production of dNTPs in response to DNA damage.
Synonyms: R2, Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase subunit M2, Ribonucleotide reductase M2 subunit, Ribonucleotide reductase small chain, Ribonucleotide reductase small subunit, RIR2_HUMAN, RR2, RR2M, RRM2.