PI3K-Akt Signalweg

Der PI3K/AKT-Signalweg ist ein ausschlaggebender Faktor bei der zellulären Homöostase, der neurologischen Entwicklung, beim Stoffwechsel und anderen Prozessen. Er reguliert zahlreiche Abschnitte der Zellentwicklung wie die Apoptose, die Zellzyklusprogression und die Zelldifferenzierung.

Der Hauptregulator des PI3K/AKT-Signalwegs ist AKT/PKB, eine Familie dreier eng verwandter Serin/Threonin-Kinasen. AKT1/PKB Alpha spielt eine wichtige Rolle bei der Zellpoliferation und dem Zellstoffwechsel. AKT2/PKB Beta ist maßgeblich für den Glukosestoffwechsel. AKT3/PKB Gamma ist das zuletzt charakterisierte Mitglied der AKT-Familie und kommt vorwiegend im Gehirn vor, wo es für die Regulierung der mitochondrialen Biogenese zuständig ist.

Mutationen in AKT-Genen führen häufig zu einer Deregulation dieser Prozesse und der Entstehung unterschiedlicher Krebsformen. Eine Überaktivierung von AKT führt ebenfalls zu einer erhöhten Glykolyse und unterstützt somit die metabolische Transformation von Krebszellen. AKT spielt eine Rolle bei der Entwicklung einer Resistenz gegenüber Krebsmedikamenten und ist deshalb Gegenstand der präklinischen und klinischen Forschung. Dennoch ist die Aktivierung von AKT meist nicht ausreichend und weitere Mutationen sind nötig, um den Phänotyp von Krebs zu verursachen.

Der Funktionsverlust der wichtigsten AKT-Regulatoren PI3K und PTEN kann zu einer Überaktivierung von AKT führen. PI3K ist eine Enzymfamilie, die Ptdlns (Phosphatidylinositol) phosphoryliert, um Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphat (PIP3) herzustellen. Nach der Aktivierung durch den Rezeptor phosphoryliert Tyrosinkenase (PI3K) PIP2 zu PIP3, welches daraufhin den AKT-Signalweg aktiviert. PTEN fungiert als negativer Regulator der Signalübertragung durch die Dephosphorylierung von PIP3 zu PIP2.

Akt

AKT1 - AKT

The serine-threonine protein kinase encoded by the AKT1 gene is catalytically inactive in serum-starved primary and immortalized fibroblasts. AKT1 and the related AKT2 are activated by platelet-derived growth factor. The activation is rapid and specific, and it is abrogated by mutations in the pleckstrin homology domain of AKT1. It was shown that the activation occurs through...   More...
Antigene in dieser Kategorie:
AKT2 (V-Akt Murine Thymoma Viral Oncogene Homolog 2): AKT2 Antikörper AKT2 ELISA Kits AKT2 Proteine
AKT3 (V-Akt Murine Thymoma Viral Oncogene Homolog 3 (Protein Kinase B, Gamma)): AKT3 Antikörper AKT3 ELISA Kits AKT3 Proteine

AMPA receptors

GRIA1 (Glutamate Receptor, Ionotropic, AMPA 1):

Glutamate receptors are the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter receptors in the mammalian brain and are activated in a variety of normal neurophysiologic processes. These receptors are heteromeric protein complexes with multiple subunits, each possessing transmembrane regions, and all arranged to form a ligand-gated ion channel. The classification of glutamate receptors is based on their...   More...

GRIA2 (Glutamate Receptor, Ionotropic, AMPA 2):

Glutamate receptors are the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter receptors in the mammalian brain and are activated in a variety of normal neurophysiologic processes. This gene product belongs to a family of glutamate receptors that are sensitive to alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA), and function as ligand-activated cation channels. These channels are assembled...   More...
Antigene in dieser Kategorie:
GRIA3 - Glutamate Receptor 3: GRIA3 Antikörper GRIA3 ELISA Kits GRIA3 Proteine
GRIA4 (Glutamate Receptor, Ionotrophic, AMPA 4): GRIA4 Antikörper GRIA4 ELISA Kits GRIA4 Proteine

Apoptosis

BCL2 (B-Cell CLL/lymphoma 2):

This gene encodes an integral outer mitochondrial membrane protein that blocks the apoptotic death of some cells such as lymphocytes. Constitutive expression of BCL2, such as in the case of translocation of BCL2 to Ig heavy chain locus, is thought to be the cause of follicular lymphoma. Two transcript variants, produced by alternate splicing, differ in their C-terminal ends. [provided by...   More...

MDM2 (Mdm2, p53 E3 Ubiquitin Protein Ligase Homolog (Mouse)):

This gene is a target gene of the transcription factor tumor protein p53. The encoded protein is a nuclear phosphoprotein that binds and inhibits transactivation by tumor protein p53, as part of an autoregulatory negative feedback loop. Overexpression of this gene can result in excessive inactivation of tumor protein p53, diminishing its tumor suppressor function. This protein has E3 ubiquitin...   More...
Antigene in dieser Kategorie:

Cell cycle

CCNA2 - Cyclin A

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by a dramatic periodicity in protein abundance through the cell cycle. Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which contribute to the temporal coordination of each mitotic event. In contrast to cyclin A1,...   More...

CDKN1A (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1)):

This gene encodes a potent cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. The encoded protein binds to and inhibits the activity of cyclin-CDK2 or -CDK4 complexes, and thus functions as a regulator of cell cycle progression at G1. The expression of this gene is tightly controlled by the tumor suppressor protein p53, through which this protein mediates the p53-dependent cell cycle G1 phase arrest in...   More...
Antigene in dieser Kategorie:
CCND1 - Cyclin D1: CCND1 Antikörper CCND1 ELISA Kits CCND1 Proteine
CDK2 (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2): CDK2 Antikörper CDK2 ELISA Kits CDK2 Proteine
CDK2AP2 (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 Associated Protein 2): CDK2AP2 Antikörper CDK2AP2 ELISA Kits CDK2AP2 Proteine
GSK3a - GSK3 alpha: GSK3a Antikörper GSK3a ELISA Kits GSK3a Proteine

Cell survival

EIF4EBP1 (Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4E Binding Protein 1):

This gene encodes one member of a family of translation repressor proteins. The protein directly interacts with eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), which is a limiting component of the multisubunit complex that recruits 40S ribosomal subunits to the 5' end of mRNAs. Interaction of this protein with eIF4E inhibits complex assembly and represses translation. This protein is...   More...

RPS6KB1 (Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase, 70kDa, Polypeptide 1):

This gene encodes a member of the ribosomal S6 kinase family of serine/threonine kinases. The encoded protein responds to mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signaling to promote protein synthesis, cell growth, and cell proliferation. Activity of this gene has been associated with human cancer. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed. The use of alternative translation...   More...
Antigene in dieser Kategorie:
ATG13 (Autophagy Related 13): ATG13 Antikörper ATG13 ELISA Kits ATG13 Proteine
RPS6KB2 (Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase, 70kDa, Polypeptide 2): RPS6KB2 Antikörper RPS6KB2 ELISA Kits RPS6KB2 Proteine

Glucose metabolism

GYS1 - Glycogen Synthase 1

The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the addition of glucose monomers to the growing glycogen molecule through the formation of alpha-1,4-glycoside linkages. Mutations in this gene are associated with muscle glycogen storage disease. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009].   More...

PIP5K1B (Phosphatidylinositol-4-Phosphate 5-Kinase, Type I, beta):

Participates in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. Mediates RAC1-dependent reorganization of actin filaments. Contributes to the activation of PLD2. Together with PIP5K1A is required after stimulation of G-protein coupled receptors for stable platelet adhesion (By similarity).   More...
Antigene in dieser Kategorie:
PFKFB2 (6-phosphofructo-2-Kinase/fructose-2,6-Biphosphatase 2): PFKFB2 Antikörper PFKFB2 ELISA Kits PFKFB2 Proteine
GSK3a - GSK3 alpha: GSK3a Antikörper GSK3a ELISA Kits GSK3a Proteine
HK2 - Hexokinase 2: HK2 Antikörper HK2 ELISA Kits HK2 Proteine
PIP5K1A (Phosphatidylinositol-4-Phosphate 5-Kinase, Type I, alpha): PIP5K1A Antikörper   PIP5K1A Proteine
PIP5K1C (Phosphatidylinositol-4-Phosphate 5-Kinase, Type I, gamma): PIP5K1C Antikörper PIP5K1C ELISA Kits PIP5K1C Proteine

Immune response

GSK3a - GSK3 alpha

This gene encodes a multifunctional Ser/Thr protein kinase that is implicated in the control of several regulatory proteins including glycogen synthase, and transcription factors, such as JUN. It also plays a role in the WNT and PI3K signaling pathways, as well as regulates the production of beta-amyloid peptides associated with Alzheimer's disease. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011].   More...

NCF1 (Neutrophil Cytosol Factor 1):

The protein encoded by this gene is a 47 kDa cytosolic subunit of neutrophil NADPH oxidase. This oxidase is a multicomponent enzyme that is activated to produce superoxide anion. Mutations in this gene have been associated with chronic granulomatous disease. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008].   More...
Antigene in dieser Kategorie:
CHUK (conserved Helix-Loop-Helix Ubiquitous Kinase): CHUK Antikörper CHUK ELISA Kits CHUK Proteine
MAP3K8 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 8): MAP3K8 Antikörper MAP3K8 ELISA Kits MAP3K8 Proteine

mTORC1

MLST8 (MTOR Associated Protein, LST8 Homolog (S. Cerevisiae)):

cytosolic protein similar to an insulin receptor [RGD, Feb 2006].   More...

RPTOR - Raptor

This gene encodes a component of a signaling pathway that regulates cell growth in response to nutrient and insulin levels. The encoded protein forms a stoichiometric complex with the mTOR kinase, and also associates with eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein-1 and ribosomal protein S6 kinase. The protein positively regulates the downstream effector ribosomal protein S6 kinase, and...   More...
Antigene in dieser Kategorie:
DEPTOR (DEP Domain Containing MTOR-Interacting Protein): DEPTOR Antikörper DEPTOR ELISA Kits DEPTOR Proteine
FRAP1 - MTOR: FRAP1 Antikörper FRAP1 ELISA Kits FRAP1 Proteine

mTORC2

DEPTOR (DEP Domain Containing MTOR-Interacting Protein):

Negative regulator of the mTORC1 and mTORC2 signaling pathways. Inhibits the kinase activity of both complexes (By similarity).   More...

TNPO1 - Transportin 1

This gene encodes the beta subunit of the karyopherin receptor complex which interacts with nuclear localization signals to target nuclear proteins to the nucleus. The karyopherin receptor complex is a heterodimer of an alpha subunit which recognizes the nuclear localization signal and a beta subunit which docks the complex at nucleoporins. Alternate splicing of this gene results in two...   More...
Antigene in dieser Kategorie:
FRAP1 - MTOR: FRAP1 Antikörper FRAP1 ELISA Kits FRAP1 Proteine
MAPKAP1 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Associated Protein 1): MAPKAP1 Antikörper MAPKAP1 ELISA Kits MAPKAP1 Proteine
MLST8 (MTOR Associated Protein, LST8 Homolog (S. Cerevisiae)): MLST8 Antikörper MLST8 ELISA Kits MLST8 Proteine
PRR5 - Proline Rich 5 (Renal): PRR5 Antikörper PRR5 ELISA Kits PRR5 Proteine

Neural development

HTT - Huntingtin

Huntingtin is a disease gene linked to Huntington's disease, a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of striatal neurons. This is thought to be caused by an expanded, unstable trinucleotide repeat in the huntingtin gene, which translates as a polyglutamine repeat in the protein product. A fairly broad range in the number of trinucleotide repeats has been identified in normal...   More...

PDK

PDPK1 (3-phosphoinositide Dependent Protein Kinase-1):

Serine/threonine kinase required for embryonic development. Inhibits apoptosis. Acts in the insulin receptor transduction pathway which regulates cell growth and organ size, by phosphorylating and activating Akt1 and S6k. May be involved in axonal pathfinding and synaptogenesis, and in spermatogenesis.   More...

PDK1 (Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase, Isozyme 1):

Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is a mitochondrial multienzyme complex that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate and is one of the major enzymes responsible for the regulation of homeostasis of carbohydrate fuels in mammals. The enzymatic activity is regulated by a phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cycle. Phosphorylation of PDH by a specific pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK)...   More...
Antigene in dieser Kategorie:
PDK2 (Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase, Isozyme 2): PDK2 Antikörper PDK2 ELISA Kits PDK2 Proteine
PDK3 (Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase, Isozyme 3): PDK3 Antikörper PDK3 ELISA Kits PDK3 Proteine
PDK4 (Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase, Isozyme 4): PDK4 Antikörper PDK4 ELISA Kits PDK4 Proteine

PHLPP

PHLPP1 (PH Domain and Leucine Rich Repeat Protein Phosphatase 1):

This gene encodes a member of the serine/threonine phosphatase family. The encoded protein promotes apoptosis by dephosphorylating and inactivating the serine/threonine kinase Akt, and functions as a tumor suppressor in multiple types of cancer. Increased expression of this gene may also play a role in obesity and type 2 diabetes by interfering with Akt-mediated insulin signaling. [provided by...   More...
Antigene in dieser Kategorie:
PHLPP2 (PH Domain and Leucine Rich Repeat Protein Phosphatase 2): PHLPP2 Antikörper   PHLPP2 Proteine

PI3K

PIK3CA (Phosphoinositide-3-Kinase, Catalytic, alpha Polypeptide):

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is composed of an 85 kDa regulatory subunit and a 110 kDa catalytic subunit. The protein encoded by this gene represents the catalytic subunit, which uses ATP to phosphorylate PtdIns, PtdIns4P and PtdIns(4,5)P2. This gene has been found to be oncogenic and has been implicated in cervical cancers. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008].   More...

PIK3R5 (Phosphoinositide-3-Kinase, Regulatory Subunit 5):

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks) phosphorylate the inositol ring of phosphatidylinositol at the 3-prime position, and play important roles in cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, motility, survival and intracellular trafficking. The PI3Ks are divided into three classes: I, II and III, and only the class I PI3Ks are involved in oncogenesis. This gene encodes the 101 kD regulatory...   More...
Antigene in dieser Kategorie:
PIK3CG (Phosphoinositide-3-Kinase, Catalytic, gamma Polypeptide): PIK3CG Antikörper PIK3CG ELISA Kits PIK3CG Proteine
PIK3R6 (Phosphoinositide-3-Kinase, Regulatory Subunit 6): PIK3R6 Antikörper PIK3R6 ELISA Kits PIK3R6 Proteine
PI3KR5 (PI3KR5): PI3KR5 Antikörper    

PP2A

PPP2CA - Protein Phosphatase 2, Catalytic Subunit, alpha Isozyme

This gene encodes the phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit. Protein phosphatase 2A is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases, and it is implicated in the negative control of cell growth and division. It consists of a common heteromeric core enzyme, which is composed of a catalytic subunit and a constant regulatory subunit, that associates with a variety of regulatory subunits. This gene encodes...   More...

PPP2R4 (Protein Phosphatase 2A Activator, Regulatory Subunit 4):

Protein phosphatase 2A is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases and is implicated in the negative control of cell growth and division. Protein phosphatase 2A holoenzymes are heterotrimeric proteins composed of a structural subunit A, a catalytic subunit C, and a regulatory subunit B. The regulatory subunit is encoded by a diverse set of genes that have been grouped into the B/PR55,...   More...
Antigene in dieser Kategorie:
MTS - Microtubule Star: MTS Antikörper    
PPP2R1A (Protein Phosphatase 2, Regulatory Subunit A, alpha): PPP2R1A Antikörper PPP2R1A ELISA Kits PPP2R1A Proteine
PPP2R1B (Protein Phosphatase 2, Regulatory Subunit A, beta): PPP2R1B Antikörper PPP2R1B ELISA Kits PPP2R1B Proteine
PPP2R3A (Protein Phosphatase 2, Regulatory Subunit B'', alpha): PPP2R3A Antikörper PPP2R3A ELISA Kits  
PPP2R3C (Protein Phosphatase 2, Regulatory Subunit B'', gamma): PPP2R3C Antikörper PPP2R3C ELISA Kits PPP2R3C Proteine
PPP2R5A (Protein Phosphatase 2, Regulatory Subunit B', alpha): PPP2R5A Antikörper   PPP2R5A Proteine
PPP2R5B (Protein Phosphatase 2, Regulatory Subunit B', beta): PPP2R5B Antikörper   PPP2R5B Proteine
PPP2R5D (Protein Phosphatase 2, Regulatory Subunit B', delta): PPP2R5D Antikörper   PPP2R5D Proteine
PPP2R5E (Protein Phosphatase 2, Regulatory Subunit B', epsilon Isoform): PPP2R5E Antikörper PPP2R5E ELISA Kits PPP2R5E Proteine
PPP2CA - Protein Phosphatase 2, Regulatory Subunit B', gamma: PPP2CA Antikörper   PPP2CA Proteine
PPP2R2B (Protein Phosphatase 2, Regulatory Subunit B, beta): PPP2R2B Antikörper   PPP2R2B Proteine
PPP2R2C (Protein Phosphatase 2, Regulatory Subunit B, gamma): PPP2R2C Antikörper   PPP2R2C Proteine
PPP2R3B (Protein Phosphatase 2A 48 KDa Regulatory Subunit): PPP2R3B Antikörper   PPP2R3B Proteine

Weitere

HBXIP (Hepatitis B Virus X-Interacting Protein):

This gene encodes a protein that specifically complexes with the C-terminus of hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx). The function of this protein is to negatively regulate HBx activity and thus to alter the replication life cycle of the virus. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008].   More...

LAMTOR2 (Late Endosomal/lysosomal Adaptor, MAPK and MTOR Activator 2):

The product of this gene is highly conserved with a mouse protein associated with the cytoplasmic face of late endosomes and lysosomes. The mouse protein interacts with MAPK scaffold protein 1, a component of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. In humans, a mutation in this gene has been associated with a primary immunodeficiency syndrome, and suggests a role for this protein in...   More...
Antigene in dieser Kategorie:
MAPKSP1 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 1 Interacting Protein 1): MAPKSP1 Antikörper MAPKSP1 ELISA Kits MAPKSP1 Proteine
PITRM1 (Pitrilysin Metallopeptidase 1): PITRM1 Antikörper   PITRM1 Proteine
PPP1R2 (Protein Phosphatase 1, Regulatory (Inhibitor) Subunit 2): PPP1R2 Antikörper PPP1R2 ELISA Kits