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TH is a robust interaction partner of different 14-3-3 dimer types with moderate variability between the 14-3-3 dimers on their regulation of TH.
The sustained activation of TH that occurred as a result of TH phosphorylation at Ser40 could maintain the synthesis of catecholamines without the need for further stimulus of the adrenal cells or increased TH protein synthesis.
Retinol activates tyrosine hydroxylase via two sequential non-genomic mechanisms, which have not previously been characterized. These mechanisms are likely to operate in vivo to facilitate the stress response.
IFN-alpha mediated activation of ERK1/2 appeared to be responsible for the increased phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase.
haploinsufficiency of th gene in female mice appears to provoke premature aging of the regulatory systems affecting mean lifespan.
conserved regions recruit transcription factors that are established regulators of Th transcription
Down-regulation of expression of the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine biosynthesis, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), in the midbrains of Ahi1-knockout (KO) mice is responsible for Ahi1-deficiency-mediated depressive symptoms.
A lack of age-associated arterial pressure increase found in mature adult Th-hetrozygous mice.
This study demonstrated that the expression patterns of the calcitonin-related polypeptide alpha and tyrosine hydroxylase formed opposing gradients, with tyrosine hydroxylase being preferentially expressed in apical and calcitonin-related polypeptide alpha in basal type II afferent neurons, indicating heterogeneity among type II afferent neurons.
Study used Cre-lox technology to selectively ablate tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) from Kiss1 cells. Surprisingly, despite a practically complete knock-out of TH from Kiss1 cells, study found that all aspects of puberty, reproductive hormone secretion, and fertility were normal in Kiss THKOs. This suggests that dopamine synthesized in Kiss1 cells is not required for normal puberty and reproduction.
These findings reveal that Th and Gad1 share a transcription regulatory mechanism that facilitates odorant-dependent regulation of dopamine and GABA expression levels.
deletion of Th in hematopoietic cells of adult mice neither alters energy expenditure upon cold exposure nor reduces browning in inguinal adipose tissue. Bone marrow-derived macrophages did not release NE in response to stimulation with IL-4, and conditioned media from IL-4-stimulated macrophages failed to induce expression of thermogenic genes, such as uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1), in adipocytes.
The neurogenic contractions were higher in the sickle cell disease, in association with elevated tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylated at Ser-31 and total tyrosine hydroxylase protein expression, as well as increased tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA expression.
these data demonstrate a novel interaction between Hsc70 and TH that regulates the activity and localization of the enzyme to synaptic vesicles, suggesting an important role for Hsc70 in dopamine homeostasis.
TH gene overexpression promotes the polarization and differentiation of CD4+ cells towards Th2 cells.
The TH-immunopositive fibres detected in the orbitofrontal cortices of the DISC1 KO mice were significantly shorter than those seen in the wild-type mice.
Real-time PCR analyses revealed that social defeat significantly increased tyrosine hydroxylase in the ventral tegmental area.
These results revealed a new role of the canonical Lrp5/6-beta-catenin pathway in regulating the morphogenesis of the cerebellum during postnatal development.
psychostimulants induce downregulation of DRD1a and DRD2 mRNA expression and upregulation of tyrosine hydroxylase protein expression in the testis
Deletion of the CB2 r gene increased preference for and vulnerability to ethanol consumption, at least in part, by increased ethanol-induced sensitivity of the TH and mu-opioid receptor gene expressions in mesolimbic neurons.
IRBIT suppresses CaMKIIalpha activity and contributes to catecholamine homeostasis through TH phosphorylation.
results indicate that striatal TH interneurons are not dopaminergic but rather are a type of GABAergic interneuron that expresses TH and exert widespread GABAergic inhibition onto direct and indirect spiny neurons.
the presence of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and protein expressing cells in the striatum (including nucleus accumbens), central and medial extended amygdala during development
Mating increases neuronal tyrosine hydroxylase expression and selectively gates transmission of male chemosensory information in female mice.
Achilles tendon tenocytes produce tyrosine hydroxylase.
These results provide a novel mechanism of how NO can modulate TH's enzymatic activity through S-nitrosylation.
It is a genetic risk for Parkinson's disease.
One novel mutation of c.679A>G (p.T227A) in GCH1 and 3 known mutations of c.457C>T (p.R153X), c.739G>A (p.G247S), and c.698G>A (p.R227H) in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) have been found and predicted to be damaging or deleterious.
This study does not support that early-onset PD may be the male presentation of TH deficiency attributed to this founder mutation in Greek patients.
A novel heterozygous variant in tyrosine hydroxylase was identified in Chinese patients with dopa-responsive dystonia.
This study indicates that mutations in TH are rare in late-onset Parkinson's disease.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the clinical significance of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in peripheral blood (PB) at diagnosis in patients with neuroblastoma.. The treatment intensity should be tailored according to TH expression in PB at diagnosis.
Our results suggest that the TH-immunoreactive cells in the human cortex do not overlap with any known neurochemically-defined subsets of interneurons and provide further evidence of differences in the phenotype of these cells across species.
Results show that the positive rates and expression levels of nestin, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), GFAP and IL-17 were significantly decreased while Foxp3 and the ratio of Foxp3/IL-17 were statistically elevated in BM of AML patients.
Data suggest that TH phosphorylated at Ser-31 co-distributes with Golgi complexes and synaptic-like vesicles in rat and human dopaminergic neurons/cell lines; Ser-31 phosphorylation may regulate TH subcellular localization by enabling its transport along microtubules, notably toward the projection terminals.
Germline mutations in the TH gene are linked to Familial isolated pituitary adenoma in a Brazilian Family.
No statistically significant differences were found between cases and controls for the allele frequencies in five genes: TH, SLC18A2, DRD1, DRD3 and COMT. Conversely, some alleles of the 12 sNPs from the DRD2 locus and the 5 from the MAOA locus showed significant associations with excessive alcohol consumption.
Results show that metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels were significantly down-regulated in Parkinson disease (PD) samples as compared with normal brain tissue
the reduction of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons occurring in the locus coeruleus after perinatal hypoxic insults persists into adulthood
The data suggest that presence of a homozygous V81M polymorphism is associated with more severe freezing of gait in patients with Parkinson's disease
In this study we found that TH protein levels did not differ between control and schizophrenia groups in the nucleus accumbens.
In high-risk metastatic Neuroblastoma, TH and DCX mRNA quantification could be used for the assessment of response to treatment and for early detection of progressive disease or relapses.
the allelic frequency of the TH01 marker in 171 Swiss sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) infants and 500 healthy and gender-matched Caucasian adults showed that the 9.3 allele is similarly distributed in SIDS cases and controls (27.2% vs. 25.6%; p-value = 0.562).
The biochemically conserved regulatory mechanisms of recombinant DTH parallel those from mammals.
maternal as well as embryonic effects on the secretion and/or functionality of Tyrosine hydroxylase (pale) may play roles in the early developmental program of the organism.
activity of tyrosine hydroxylase is also increased by this interaction, in excess of the stimulation resulting from phosphorylation alone
Tyrosine hydroxylase is co-localized with egr1 in olfactory bulb throughout brain development.
Transiently knocked down tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the rate limiting enzyme in DA synthesis) gene expression in the early stages of brain development was studied in zebrafish.
Overall, TH1+ and serotonergic system innervation is massively altered in the successfully regenerated spinal cord of adult zebrafish.
The tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cells in zebrafish are limited to very specific subpopulations of the amacrine cells.
mRNA expression of TH1 and TH2 is differentially affected by hypoxia exposure in larvae and adults. TH1 mRNA levels are much higher in eye and brain
In the analyzed samples we found two novel TH mRNAs, one lacking exon 8, and another lacking exons 8+9. These new splicing variants are described in a region of TH previously reported to be conserved.
The developmental sequence of THir cell groups in dogfish appears to be rather similar to that described for teleosts, apart from the appearance of the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra and pallial cells, which lack in teleosts.
th1 is predominant in the brain of zebrafish and th2 in the periphery.
The protein encoded by this gene is involved in the conversion of tyrosine to dopamine. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamines, hence plays a key role in the physiology of adrenergic neurons. Mutations in this gene have been associated with autosomal recessive Segawa syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been noted for this gene.
, tyrosine 3-monooxygenase
, tyrosine hydroxylase
, dystonia 14
, XBB70 group VII
, drosophila tyrosine hydroxylase
, tyrosine hydrodroxylase
, tyrosine hydroxylase S homeolog