Synonyms: AMB11,CD158 antigen-like family member E,CD158e,CD158e antigen,CD158E1,CD158E1/2,CD158E2,CL11,CL2,HLA-BW4-specific inhibitory NK cell receptor,KI3L1,killer cell immunoglobulin like receptor,Killer cell immunoglobulin like receptor three domains,short cytoplasmic tail,1,Killer cell immunoglobulin like receptor three domains long cytoplasmic tail 1,Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor 3DL1,KIR,KIR antigen 3DL1,KIR G1,Kir3dl1,KIR3DS1,Kirl1,Kirl2,Krl1,MGC119726,MGC119728,MGC126589,MGC126591,MHC class I NK cell receptor,Natural killer associated transcript 3,Natural killer cell inhibitory receptor,Natural killer-associated transcript 3,NK receptor,NK-associated transcript 10,NK-associated transcript 3,NK-associated transcript 3delIg1,NKAT-3,NKAT10,NKAT3,NKB1,NKB1B,p70 killer cell inhibitory receptor,p70 natural killer cell receptor clones CL 2/CL 11,p70 natural killer cell receptor clones CL-2/CL-11,p70 NK receptor CL-2/CL-11
Background: Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are transmembrane glycoproteins expressed by natural killer cells and subsets of T cells. The KIR genes are polymorphic and highly homologous and they are found in a cluster on chromosome 19q13.4 within the 1 Mb leukocyte receptor complex (LRC). The gene content of the KIR gene cluster varies among haplotypes, although several 'framework' genes are found in all haplotypes (KIR3DL3, KIR3DP1, KIR3DL4, KIR3DL2). The KIR proteins are classified by the number of extracellular immunoglobulin domains (2D or 3D) and by whether they have a long (L) or short (S) cytoplasmic domain. KIR proteins with the long cytoplasmic domain transduce inhibitory signals upon ligand binding via an immune tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM), while KIR proteins with the short cytoplasmic domain lack the ITIM motif and instead associate with the TYRO protein tyrosine kinase binding protein to transduce activating signals. The ligands for several KIR proteins are subsets of HLA class I molecules, thus, KIR proteins are thought to play an important role in regulation of the immune response.