The androgen receptor gene is more than 90 kb long and codes for a protein that has 3 major functional domains: the N-terminal domain, DNA-binding domain, and androgen-binding domain. The protein functions as a steroid-hormone activated transcription factor. Upon binding the hormone ligand, the receptor dissociates from accessory proteins, translocates into the nucleus, dimerizes, and then stimulates transcription of androgen responsive genes. This gene contains 2 polymorphic trinucleotide repeat segments that encode polyglutamine and polyglycine tracts in the N-terminal transactivation domain of its protein. Expansion of the polyglutamine tract causes spinal bulbar muscular atrophy (Kennedy disease). Mutations in this gene are also associated with complete androgen insensitivity (CAIS). Two alternatively spliced variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Synonyms: Androgen Receptor phospho S791, Androgen Receptor Ser791, Androgen Receptor phospho Ser791, p-Androgen Receptor Ser791, ANDR_HUMAN, HYSP1, AIS, Androgen receptor dihydrotestosterone receptor, testicular feminization, spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, Kennedy disease, AR, DHTR, Dihydro Testosterone Receptor, Dihydrotestosterone receptor, HUMARA, Nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group C member 4, SBMA, SMAX1, Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, TFM.