Heterotrimeric G proteins function to relay information from cell surface receptors to intracellular effectors. Each of a very broad range of receptors specifically detects an extracellular stimulus (i.e. a photon, pheromone, odorant, hormone or neurotransmitter), while the effectors (e.g. adenyl cyclase), which act to generate one or more intracellular messengers, are less numerous. In mammals, G protein alhfa, beta and gamma polypeptides are encoded by at least 16, 4 and 7 genes, respectively. Most interest in G proteins has been focused on their a subunits, since these proteins bind and hydrolyze GTP and most obviously regulate the activity of the best studied effectors. Evidence, however, has established an important regulatory role for the beta gamma subunits. It is becoming increasingly clear that different G protein complexes expressed in different tissues carry structurally distinct members of the gamma as well as the alhfa and beta subunits, and that preferential associations between members of subunit families increase G protein functional diversity.
Synonyms: FLJ92393, GBG5_HUMAN, Gng5, Guanine nucleotide-binding protein GI/GS/GO subunit gamma-5, OTTHUMP00000011474, OTTHUMP00000011565.