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The protein encoded by ENPP2 functions as both a phosphodiesterase, which cleaves phosphodiester bonds at the 5' end of oligonucleotides, and a phospholipase, which catalyzes production of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in extracellular fluids. Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen ENPP2 Kits (27) und ENPP2 Proteine (14) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an.
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Structural and functional studies have revealed what makes ATX a unique lysoPLD, and how secreted ATX binds to its target cells. The ATX catalytic domain shows a characteristic bimetallic active site followed by a shallow binding groove that can accommodate nucleotides as well as the glycerol moiety of lysophospholipids, and by a deep lipid-binding pocket.
We conclude that an ATM-ATX axis interconnects double-strand breaks with silica-induced inflammation and propagates these effects in epithelial cells
we present a new crystal structure of ATX in complex with orthovanadate (ATX-VO5), which binds the Ogamma nucleophile of Thr209 and adopts a trigonal bipyramidal conformation, following the nucleophile attack onto the substrate.We propose that ATX follows the associative two-step in-line displacement mechanism.
The effects of gamma radiation on mRNA levels of autotaxin and 14 inflammatory mediators in adipose tissue and the consequences for radiation therapy and chemotherapy are discussed.
These findings suggest that the promoter hypomethylation and overexpression of ATX might play a contributory role in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis in biliary atresia.
LPA2 mRNA levels were associated with poorer differentiation, and higher LPA6 levels were associated with microvascular invasion in HCC; both became a risk factor for recurrence after surgical treatment when combined with increased serum ATX levels
AKT (zeige AKT1 Antikörper) signaling played a role in ATX secretion regulation to facilitate ATX ER export by enhancing the nuclear factor of activated T cell (zeige NFATC3 Antikörper)-mediated p23 (Sec24C (zeige SEC24C Antikörper)) expression
Expression of both ATX and IL-6 was increased in systemic scleroderma (SSc) skin, and lysophosphatidic acid-induced IL-6 levels and IL (zeige CYP11A1 Antikörper)-6-induced ATX levels were increased i (zeige CYP11A1 Antikörper)n fibroblasts from SSc patients compared with (zeige IL6 Antikörper) controls.
Elevated levels of autotaxin and soluble markers of immune activation during HCV infection.
These results suggest that the post-transcriptional regulation of ATX expression by HuR (zeige ELAVL1 Antikörper) and AUF1 (zeige HNRNPD Antikörper) modulates cancer cell migration.
ENPP2 links Activin-A (zeige INHBA Antikörper) enhanced mTOR (zeige FRAP1 Antikörper) signaling to promote aberrant chondrogenesis in fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva
This study showed that alternative autotaxin-independent pathways are likely responsible for local generation of lysophosphatidic acid in the injured lung.
Hepatocyte autotaxin expression promotes liver fibrosis and liver cancer.
These results indicate that ATX-lysophosphatidic acid-LPA3 (zeige LPAR3 Antikörper) signaling at the embryo-epithelial boundary induces decidualization via the canonical HB-EGF (zeige HBEGF Antikörper) and COX-2 (zeige COX2 Antikörper) pathways.
ATX is required for the development and maintenance of dermal fibrosis in a mouse model of bleomycin-induced systemic scleroderma (SSc (zeige CYP11A1 Antikörper)) and enables 2 major mediators of SSc (zeige CYP11A1 Antikörper) fibrogenesis, lysophosphatidic acid and IL-6 (zeige IL6 Antikörper), to amplify the production of each other.
inducible, ubiquitous genetic deletion of ATX in adult mice, as well as long-term potent pharmacologic inhibition, are well tolerated, alleviating potential toxicity concerns of ATX therapeutic targeting.
findings indicate that the ATX level must be carefully regulated to ensure coordinated vascular formation
Autotaxin is an inflammatory mediator and therapeutic target in thyroid cancer
These findings identify ATX and LPA2 (zeige LPAR2 Antikörper) as radiation-regulated genes that appear to play a physiological role in DNA repair.
ENPP2 may play an important role in the establishment of pregnancy in pigs by regulating lysophosphatidic acid production at the maternal-conceptus interface.
These results indicate that the generation of cyclic phosphatidic acid and lysophosphatidic acid in serum is mainly attributed to autotaxin.
Defects in forebrain development during loss-of-function experiments for ENPP2, an enzyme involved in the synthesis of extracellular lysophosphatidic acid.
Autotaxin-Lysophosphatidic Acid axis acts downstream of Apoprotein (zeige APOE Antikörper) B lipoproteins in endothelial cells.
When autotaxin (Atx), was overexpressed in zebrafish embryos by injecting atx mRNA, the embryos showed cardia bifida, a phenotype induced by down-regulation of sphingosine-1-phosphate signaling.
the ATX-LPA-LPAR axis is a critical regulator of embryonic vascular development that is conserved in vertebrates
This study demonstrate that the zebrafish ortholog to mammalian atx displays evolutionarily conserved expression pattern characteristics.
results suggest a major role for the Atx/Lpar3 (zeige LPAR3 Antikörper) signaling axis in regulating KV formation, ciliogenesis and L-R asymmetry via a Wnt (zeige WNT2 Antikörper)-dependent pathway
The protein encoded by this gene functions as both a phosphodiesterase, which cleaves phosphodiester bonds at the 5' end of oligonucleotides, and a phospholipase, which catalyzes production of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in extracellular fluids. LPA evokes growth factor-like responses including stimulation of cell proliferation and chemotaxis. This gene product stimulates the motility of tumor cells and has angiogenic properties, and its expression is upregulated in several kinds of carcinomas. The gene product is secreted and further processed to make the biologically active form. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified.
, ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase family member 2
, extracellular lysophospholipase D
, phosphodiesterase I/nucleotide pyrophosphatase 2
, plasma lysophospholipase D
, phosphodiesterase I/nucleotide pyrophosphatase 2 (autotaxin)
, ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2 (autotaxin)
, ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2
, ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase family member 2 isoform 2 preproprotein
, ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2 S homeolog