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CRYs' C termini are essential for nuclear localization but not necessary for the suppression of CLOCK/BMAL1 (zeige ARNTL Proteine) activation
we investigated the structure/function relationships of Xenopus laevis CRY1 (xCRY1) and xCRY2 (zeige CRY2 Proteine) in cultured cells
Cry1 is expressed in the olfactory bulb of newborn and juvenile rabbits.
CRY-1 was expressed in 94% of the CLL patients at diagnosis. The median CRY-1 relative gene expression level (0.006) stratified patients into high and low expression groups. Forty of 100 (40%) CLL patients showed high CRY-1, 54/100 (54%) showed low CRY-1, and 6/100 (6%) had undetectable CRY-1 gene expression.
Independent silencing of CRY1 and CRY2 (zeige CRY2 Proteine) genes in HAC15 cells resulted in a mild upregulation of HSD3B2 (zeige HSD3B2 Proteine) without affecting HSD3B1 (zeige HSD3B1 Proteine) expression. In conclusion, our results support the hypothesis that CRY1 and CRY2 (zeige CRY2 Proteine), being AngII-regulated genes, and showing a differential expression in APAs when compared with the adjacent adrenal cortex, might be involved in adrenal cell function, and in the regulation of aldosterone production
The studies in this review reported contrasting results about the association of different single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in clock genes and Major Depressive Disorder. The most consistent result reported the association between SNP rs2287161 of CRY1 and MDD development.
CRY1/2 serve as corepressors for many NRs (zeige SPNS1 Proteine).
Study confirms the prognostic role of CRY1 in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, as its aberrant methylation and expression is associated with high risk of treatment initiation and survival.
CRY1 SNP rs714359 showed nominally significant association with the problematicity of seasonal variations (problematic vs. no variation) of mood disorder. The set-based analysis did not support these associations. However, the CRY1 haplotype TAG including rs714359 showed nominally significant association with the problematicity of seasonal variations in mood disorder.
CRY1 variants were not associated with major depressive disorder.
Our findings suggest that CLOCK and CRY1 polymorphisms might be involved in individual susceptibility to abdominal obesity in Chinese Han population.
Knockout-rescue embryonic stem cell-derived mouse reveals that CRY1 determines circadian period through both its degradation-dependent and -independent pathways.
The present study identified USP7 (zeige USP7 Proteine) and TDP-43 (zeige TARDBP Proteine) as the regulators of CRY1 and CRY2 (zeige CRY2 Proteine), underscoring the significance of the stability control process of CRY (zeige CRY2 Proteine) proteins for period determination in the mammalian circadian clockwork.
insulin (zeige INS Proteine)-activated SREBP1c (zeige SREBF1 Proteine) downregulates gluconeogenesis through CRY1-mediated FOXO1 (zeige FOXO1 Proteine) degradation.
Circadian clock cryptochrome proteins Cry1 and Cry2 (zeige CRY2 Proteine) regulate autoimmunity.
Deleting the Cry1 intronic enhancer in mice shortens the circadian locomotor period
Data show that CRY1 binds directly to the PAS (zeige PASK Proteine) domain core of CLOCK:BMAL1, driven primarily by interaction with the CLOCK PAS (zeige PASK Proteine)-B domain.
CRY1/2 seem to repress a distinct subset of PPAR delta (zeige PPARD Proteine) target genes in muscle compared to the co-repressor NCOR1 (zeige NCOR1 Proteine). In vivo, genetic disruption of Cry1 and Cry2 (zeige CRY2 Proteine) enhances sprint exercise performance in mice.
hnRNP Q (zeige SYNCRIP Proteine) binds to mCry1 mRNA via the 5'UTR. Furthermore, hnRNP Q (zeige SYNCRIP Proteine) inhibits the translation of mCry1 mRNA, leading to altered rhythmicity in the mCRY1 protein profile.
In vivo knockdown of Rfk (zeige RFK Proteine), Riboflavin (vitamin B2) kinase essential for FAD synthesis, altered the expression rhythms of CRY1, CRY2 (zeige CRY2 Proteine), and PER1 (zeige PER1 Proteine)
Cryptochrome 1 in retinal cone photoreceptors suggests a novel functional role in mammals.
FIN219 and CRY1 negatively regulated each other by direct interaction in response to jasmonate under blue light.
The results demonstrate a CRY (zeige CRY2 Proteine)-BIC negative-feedback circuitry that regulates the activity of each other.
Exposure to blue light is required for an in vivo-association of CRY1 and CRY2 (zeige CRY2 Proteine) with COP1.
Data suggest that cry1 mutation L407F exhibits hyperactivity which is not related to a higher FADH occupancy of the photoreceptor but is caused by a structural alteration close to the ATP-binding site.
Nitrogen signaling functions as a modulator of nuclear CRY1 protein abundance, as well as the input signal for the central circadian clock to interfere with the normal flowering process.
Data show that the effect of 3-bromo-7-nitroindazole (3B7N) treatment on gene expression in cryptochromes cry1cry2 is considerably smaller than that in the wild type, indicating that 3B7N specifically interrupts cryptochrome function in the control of seedling development in a light-dependent manner.
These data illustrate that in vivo modulation by metabolites in the cellular environment may play an important role in cryptochrome signaling.
For growth under a canopy, where blue light is diminished, CRY1 and CRY2 perceive this change and respond by directly contacting two bHLH transcription factors, PIF4 and PIF5.
CRY1 represses auxin biosynthesis in response to elevated temperature through PIF4.
CRY1 inhibits hypocotyl elongation in blue light through CNT1-mediated repression of the auxin/BR/GAresponsive gene expression.
This gene encodes a flavin adenine dinucleotide-binding protein that is a key component of the circadian core oscillator complex, which regulates the circadian clock. The encoded protein is widely conserved across plants and animals. Loss of the related gene in mouse results in a shortened circadian cycle in complete darkness.
cryptochrome 1 (photolyase-like)
, cryptochrome 2 (photolyase-like)
, cryptochrome 1