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The information represented in the study confirmed previous reports. And it may assist to discover and design new backbones as potential XO inhibitors based on natural products.
The role of xanthine oxidoreductase and uric acid in metabolic syndrome.
Data found that gastric cancer patients adhering to the SNP rs207454 CC genotype had favorable clinical outcome compared with those carrying the AA/AC genotypes, suggesting that the CC allele was a protective allele in the prognosis of gastric cancer by effecting XDH mRNA expression level.
this study shows that XOR is required for genotoxic stress-induced NKG2D ligand expression and gemcitabine-mediated antitumor activity
Molecular docking simulations clarified that purpurogallins have stronger affinities for XO than corresponding pyrogallols. These results revealed that the potent XO inhibitory activity seemingly observed in pyrogallol is actually derived from its chemical conversion, under alkaline conditions, into purpurogallin.
data suggest that Alcohol use disorders augment pulmonary and systemic XOR activity that may contribute to ROS and uric acid generation, promoting inflammation.
XO is a useful marker to assess oxidative stress in polycystic ovary syndrome patients
xanthine dehydrogensase gene expression and uric acid production is altered in asthma and in human airway epithelial cells
Among cardiac patients, left ventricular hypertrophy, low LVEF, and increased BNP were significantly associated with plasma XOR activity independent of various confounding factors.
we demonstrated that BP rise over time and/or the risk of hypertension are associated with three SNP in the XOR gene: rs2043013, rs11904439, and rs148756340.
Hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase axis is not involved in the initial phase of clinical transplantation-related ischemia-reperfusion injury in kidney allograft recipients.
Serum XOD activity was higher in type 2 DM patients than in control subjects and was higher in diabetic patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy than in those without neuropathy.
XOR activity is correlated with insulin resistance, BMI, and subclinical inflammation.
Study showed that DKK3 promotes cell survival during oxidative stress by suppressing XDH expression, thereby abrogating excess reactive oxygen species accumulation and subsequent apoptosis.
Results show XOR strictly modulated at the transcriptional and post-translational levels, and its expression and activity are highly variable in cancer and negatively associated with high malignity grade and a worse prognosis. [review]
XDH and SUCLA2 genes associated with thiopurine-induced leukopenia can act in a complex interactive manner in patients with Crohn's disease.
beneficial effects observed with XO inhibitors on cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease may also be due to the reduction of oxidative stress
Thyroid stimulating hormone levels are increase in gout patients treated with inhibitors of xanthine oxidoreductase.
The XDH gene polymorphisms rs1042039, rs1054889, and rs2073316 were shown to be associated with hypertension in a rural Chinese population.
genetic association studies in population in Mexico: Data suggest that SNPs in XO (1936A>G, 2107A>G) are not associated with development of typical adverse reactions to methotrexate in pediatric patients with ALL (acute lymphoblastic leukemia).
S-allyl cysteine as potent anti-gout drug: Insight into the xanthine oxidase inhibition and anti-inflammatory activity.
Data suggest that XDH (xanthine dehydrogenase) can be an important redox-regulated source of superoxide generation in ischemic tissue; conversion XDH to XO (xanthine oxidase) is not required to activate radical formation and subsequent tissue injury.
crystal structures of the urate complexes of the demolybdo-form of the D428A mutant of rat xanthine oxidoreductase and of the reduced bovine milk enzyme [XOR]
Plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha response to either of two lipopolysaccharide challenges was lower in progesterone-treated than in 17beta-estradiol-treated steers. Xanthine oxidase response to either challenge was greater for estradiol-treated steers.
6,8-dihydroxypurine is effectively converted to uric acid by xanthine oxidase.
Hydrogen peroxide is the major oxidant product of xanthine oxidase
detailed insight into the essential mechanistic role of the active-site residues
Phe-549, Arg-335, Trp-336, & Arg-427 form the core of a relay system for the XDH/XO transition.They gate a solvent channel leading toward the FAD ring.
Results describe the formation of peroxynitrite from the simultaneous reduction of nitrite and oxygen by xanthine oxidase.
Stimulation of XDH conversion to xanthine oxidase may represent a feed-forward mechanism whereby H2O2 can stimulate further production of reactive oxygen species
evidence xanthine oxidase (XO) is regulated by transmembrane secretion of xanthine &/or hypoxanthine to extracellular environment; response of XO to bacteria & bacteria-dependent nitrosative stress demonstrates it is part of mammary gland immune system
Substrate Orientation and Catalysis at the Molybdenum Site in Xanthine Oxidase: CRYSTAL STRUCTURES IN COMPLEX WITH XANTHINE AND LUMAZINE.
Its anti-hyperuricemic mechanisms may be ascribed to its inhibition of XOD and its up-regulation of organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) and down-regulation of glucose transporter 9 (GLUT9).
Our results demonstrated that Ripk3 was strongly upregulated in murine hearts subjected to IR injury and cardiomyocytes treated with LPS and H2O2..the present study helps to elucidate how necroptosis is mediated by ER stress, via the calcium overload /XO/ROS/mPTP opening axis
eNOS deficiency is associated with an upregulation of XOR facilitating the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway and decreasing the generation of ROS. This interplay between XOR and eNOS is proposed to play a significant role in NO homeostasis and blood pressure regulation.
Collectively, these results demonstrate that XO inhibition protects against WD-induced vascular oxidative stress, fibrosis, impaired vasorelaxation, and aortic stiffness in females. Furthermore, excessive oxidative stress resulting from XO activation appears to play a key role in mediating vascular dysfunction induced by chronic exposure to WD consumption in females.
NLRP3 inflammasome is decreased and IL-1beta secretion is inhibited in macrophages by hydroxysafflor yellow A and xanthine oxidase
Extracts from Corylopsis coreana Uyeki (Hamamelidaceae) flos inhibit xanthine oxidase activity and prevent hyperuricemia.
Our results suggest that a possible relationship between xanthine oxidase-related reactive oxygen species and TRPV1 may exist during the events preceding eccentric exercise
inflammasome activation accompanied by an increase in xanthine oxidoreductase activity contributed to fat pad inflammation followed by osteoarthritis progression
XOR is abundant in wounds and participates in normal wound healing through effects on ROS production.
XOR regulated macrophage IL-1b secretion upon NLRP3 inflammasome activation via xanthine oxidase derived reactive oxygen species.
Xanthine oxidase inhibitors are potentially potent therapies for patients with NASH, particularly that associated with hyperuricemia.
these data support a novel function of the XO-NFAT5 axis in macrophage activation and TLR-induced arthritis
The expression and the activity of XO were increased dramatically within the central nervous system of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice as compared to naive mice.
Reduction in XOR gene expression in mice augments lipid accumulation in adipocytes, accompanied by an increase in oxidative stress, and induces obesity with insulin resistance in older age.
Rat Xdh is a moonlighting protein that has two distinct catalytic activities as a dehydrogenase and an oxidase.
Mouse Xdh is a moonlighting protein that has two distinct catalytic activities and acts a structural protein in milk fat droplets.
In conclusion, CS increases XOR expression, and the enzyme is both sufficient and necessary for p53 induction and CS-induced EC apoptosis.
we have established a mouse model for autosomal recessive early-onset renal failure due to a nonsense mutation in Xdh that is a model for xanthinuria in man.
These findings provide new insight into XOR functions and demonstrate the power of untargeted metabolite profiling for systemic discovery of direct and indirect consequences of gene mutations and drug treatments.
Xanthine oxidoreductase is involved in macrophage foam cell formation and atherosclerosis development.
This study demonstrates that the endogenous XO system is activated in swine HC.
Xanthine dehydrogenase belongs to the group of molybdenum-containing hydroxylases involved in the oxidative metabolism of purines. The enzyme is a homodimer. Xanthine dehydrogenase can be converted to xanthine oxidase by reversible sulfhydryl oxidation or by irreversible proteolytic modification. Defects in xanthine dehydrogenase cause xanthinuria, may contribute to adult respiratory stress syndrome, and may potentiate influenza infection through an oxygen metabolite-dependent mechanism.
, xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase
, xanthine oxidase
, xanthine oxidoreductase
, xanthine dehydrogenase
, Xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase
, xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase-like
, Xanthine dehydrogenase
, XDH xanthine dehydrogenase