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Glucose-dependent de-SUMOylation of tomosyn1 at K298 releases syntaxin1A (zeige STX1A Proteine) and controls the amplification of exocytosis in concert with a recently-identified tomosyn1-interacting partner; the Ca(2+)-binding protein (zeige PVALB Proteine) secretagogin (zeige SCGN Proteine), which dissociates from tomosyn1 in response to Ca(2 (zeige CA2 Proteine)+)-raising stimuli and is required for insulin granule trafficking and exocytosis downstream of Ca(2 (zeige CA2 Proteine)+) influx.
results indicate that higher cerebrospinal fluid insulin levels are related to impairment in cognitive performance and biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease among women and non-carriers of the APOE (zeige APOE Proteine) varepsilon4 allele
single-particle cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions of the 1:2 (4.3 A) and 1:1 (7.4 A) complexes of the insulin receptor (zeige INSR Proteine) ECD (zeige SHFM1 Proteine) dimer with insulin
Data suggest that higher plasma levels of ceramide with saturated fatty acid are associated with higher fasting levels of insulin and insulin resistance; in contrast, higher levels of sphingomyelin with saturated fatty acid are associated with lower fasting insulin and insulin resistance; this study was conduced in American Indians in AZ, OK, SD, and ND.
in latent autoimmune diabetes in adults, higher leptin (zeige LEP Proteine) secretion may exert a direct effect on beta cell function leading to more insulin sensitivity
Identify a novel proinsulin-associated locus and demonstrate that whilst proinsulin levels are associated with carotid intima media thickness measures, proinsulin per se is unlikely to have a causative effect on cIMT.
Data suggest that both a KATP channel-dependent triggering pathway (that induces a [Ca2 (zeige CA2 Proteine)+]i rise in beta-cells) and an amplifying pathway (that augments the effect of Ca2 (zeige CA2 Proteine)+ on exocytosis) are crucial for control of insulin secretion in human islets; these studies used cultured pancreatic islets from multiorgan donors exposed to a variety of pharmacological agents.
In the present study, the protein inhibitor of activated STAT (zeige STAT1 Proteine) Y (PIASy (zeige PIAS4 Proteine)) was identified as a novel Isl1 (zeige ISL1 Proteine)-interacting protein. Furthermore, PIASy (zeige PIAS4 Proteine) and Isl1 (zeige ISL1 Proteine) upregulate insulin gene expression and insulin secretion in a dose-dependent manner by activating the insulin promoter.
Muscle-related indices positively correlated with C-peptide, which showed endogenous insulin reserve
Data suggest that corticosterone and cortisol suppress voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel function and Ca2+ fluxes in beta-cells; however, insulin secretion, maximal ATP/ADP responses to glucose, and beta-cell identity/differentiation are all unaffected by these glucocorticoids.
Study used well-tempered bias exchange metadynamics simulations to determine the equilibrium ensembles of an insulin molecule under amyloidogenic conditions of low pH and high temperature. The folded state of a single insulin molecule was shown to be the most stable, longest-lived state even under amyloidogenic conditions.
The findings are consistent with previous studies that indicate a link between Na,K-ATPase (zeige ATP1A1 Proteine) activity and SFK signaling.
PTPLAD1 (zeige PTPLAD1 Proteine) and AMPK (zeige PRKAA1 Proteine) are rapidly compartmentalized within the plasma membrane (PM) and Golgi/endosome fractions after insulin stimulation and that ATIC (zeige ATIC Proteine) later accumulates in the Golgi/endosome fraction.
Pdx-1 (zeige PDX1 Proteine), MafA (zeige MAFA Proteine) and NeuroD1 (zeige NEUROD1 Proteine) bind to the A, C and E elements in the insulin promoter and regulate the transcriptional activity of the insulin promoter.
The interplay of the adiponectin system, TNFalpha (zeige TNF Proteine) and insulin at a transcriptional level and, their effects on the adipogenic transcription factor PPARgamma (zeige PPARG Proteine), as well as on the activation of main insulin signaling pathways, is reported.
Thermodynamics of insulin unfolding have been quantified by differential scanning calorimetry and thermal unfolding measurements to determine the extent and nature of their stabilization of the insulin hexamer.
Exposing the hydrophobic core of insulin can induce the increase of amyloidogenicity and formation of higher-order polymerized fibrils, which is less toxic to membranes.
Data suggest that a mutation in INS (C94Y) results a transgenic disease model for the investigation of permanent neonatal diabetes.
The results show that modulation of plasma insulin levels by dietary carbohydrates seems possible in anabolic sows, but IGF-I (zeige IGF1 Proteine) levels are less easily modified.
insulin increased GCLc (zeige GCLC Proteine) promoter activity, which required a prerequisite increase or decrease in medium glucose
The structural dynamics of insulin hexamer dissociation were studied by the photoinduced temperature jump technique and monitored by time-resolved X-ray scattering. The process of hexamer dissociation was found to involve several transient intermediates, including an expanded hexamer and an unstable tetramer.
Insulin signaling role in skeletal muscle atrophy and autophagy in in transition and postpartum period
Differences between human and bovine insulin kinetics under shear
increased sensitivity to glucose clearance and skeletal muscle insulin signaling during dietary restriction
Hormonal gene expression involved in residual feed intake in dairy cows may be related to the molecular regulation of the leptin (zeige LEP Proteine)-NPY (zeige NPY Proteine) and insulin signaling pathways.
Raman spectra of amino acids by Density Functional Theory method have been calculated. Experimental Raman spectra of insulin has been done. The simulated Raman spectrum of insulin is obtained from amino acid spectrum.
Contains Binding kinetics for insulin binding
Using synchrotron radiation (SR), the crystal structures of T6 bovine insulin complexed with Ni(2 (zeige VMP1 Proteine)+) and Cu(2+) were solved to 1.50 and 1.45 A resolution, respectively.
The present study examined the effect of insulin-mediated activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (zeige FRAP1 Proteine) complex 1 (MTORC1) signaling network on the proliferation of primary culture of theca-interstitial (T-I) cells.
insulin supports early initiation of the mesodermal factor Brachyury (zeige TBX1 Proteine) and the signalling molecules Wnt3a (zeige WNT3A Proteine) and Wnt4 (zeige WNT4 Proteine) as well as the progression of mesoderm formation
Data show that type 1 diabetic blastocyst did not express insulin mRNA.
Data (including data from studies in knockout mice) suggest that Ins2 is involved in impaired nociception/diabetic neuropathy; here, mice heterozygous for mutant Ins2 exhibit (a) significant loss of intra-epidermal nerve fibers, (b) markedly reduced responsiveness to heat in dorsal root ganglion neurons, and (c) mostly unchanged function of cold-sensitive neurons; such mice become diabetic soon after weaning.
In the present study, the mRNA expression of the two mouse insulin genes Ins1 and Ins2 was investigated in MIN6 cells treated with different concentrations of melatonin, and insulin secretion was detected under the same conditions. Following the overexpression or silencing of MTNR1B (zeige MTNR1B Proteine), the activities of components of the MAPK (zeige MAPK1 Proteine) signaling pathway
These results suggest that PABP (zeige EBP Proteine) interacts with HuD (zeige ELAVL4 Proteine) in basal glucose conditions making translation inhibitory complex, however upon glucose stimulation this association is affected and PABP (zeige EBP Proteine) is acted upon by PDI (zeige PDIA3 Proteine) resulting in stimulation of insulin translation.
Data (including data from studies using knockout mice) suggest that Ins1 and Ins2 are required for pancreatic beta-cell maturation; thus, Ins1 and Ins2 are needed for normal beta-cell development and for maintenance of normal beta-cell function.
cTAGE5 deletion in pancreatic beta cells impairs proinsulin trafficking and insulin biogenesis in mice.
These results suggest that prolonged exposure to hyperglycemia in the Ins2(Akita+/-) mice leads to progressive testicular disruption mediated by testicular activin activity, rather than hormonal dysregulation.
report that EndMTs occur in the diabetic endothelium of Ins2Akita/wt mouse, and show that induction of sex determining region Y-box 2 (Sox2 (zeige SOX2 Proteine)) is a mediator of excess BMP signaling that results in activation of EndMTs and increased vascular calcification
Transplantation of transduced hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) expressing proinsulin II prevents diabetes development.
Wnt3a increased the expression of NeuroD1 and Ins2 in the hypothalamus.
Data suggest that resveratrol acts on differentiating preadipocytes by inhibiting insulin signaling, mitochondrial biogenesis, and lipogenesis.
Temporal and spatial expression of two insulin genes (insa and insab) during early developmental stages.
These findings suggest that GHRL (zeige GHRL Proteine) regulates INS synthesis by mediating its action on growth hormone secretagogue-receptor (zeige GHSR Proteine) in the central nervous system and partly involved in carbohydrate-glycogen (zeige GYS2 Proteine) metabolism.
Our results indicate that in adult tilapia insulin expression is not restricted to the endocrine pancreatic cells, but also occurs in endocrine cells of the pituitary gland and in the neuronal cells of the brain.
After removal of the precursor signal peptide, proinsulin is post-translationally cleaved into three peptides: the B chain and A chain peptides, which are covalently linked via two disulfide bonds to form insulin, and C-peptide. Binding of insulin to the insulin receptor (INSR) stimulates glucose uptake. A multitude of mutant alleles with phenotypic effects have been identified. There is a read-through gene, INS-IGF2, which overlaps with this gene at the 5' region and with the IGF2 gene at the 3' region. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.