In mammalian cells, translation is controlled at the level of polypeptide chain initiation by initiation factors. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 1 (eIF1) is crucial for the scanning process in vitro. During the scanning process, eIF1 is a component of a complex involved in recognition of the initiator codon. Translation is also initiated by the role of eIF1 in regulating the activity of ribosomal subunits 43S, 48S and 40S. eIF1 enables 43S ribosomal complexes to discern between cognate and near-cognate initiation codons, sensing the nucleotide content of initiation codons. It is also a promotor, along with eukar-yotic translation initiation factor 1A (eIF1A), for assembly of 48S ribosomal complexes at the initiation codon of a conventional capped mRNA. In addition, eIF1 and eIF1A, together with eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5 (eIF5), function in the formation of stable 40S ribosomal preinitiation complexes.
Synonyms: A121, e1, E1_HUMAN, E1A, Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 1, ISO1, Protein translation factor SUI1 homolog, SUI1, Sui1iso1.