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Opsins are members of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor superfamily.
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The wide distribution of OPN4 in central areas of the human brain evokes a question whether ambient light has important straight targets in the human brain outside the retinohypothalamic tract.
Trait-like individual differences in the melanopsin phototransduction circuitry contribute to individual differences in sleep timing. Blue light-sensitive young individuals are more prone to delayed sleep.
The light-induced FOS response in melanopsin expressing HEK (zeige EPHA3 Proteine)-293 cells is correlated with melanopsin quantity and dependent on light duration and irradiance.
By broadening the tuning of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, melanopsin tristability produces signal integration.
The response of the human pupil to the separate stimulation of the cones and melanopsin at a range of temporal frequencies under photopic conditions, was measured.
Studied OPN4*Ile394Thr gene polymorphism in association with sleep/wake timing.
The results of this study showed that the post illumination pupil response varied on the basis of OPN4 I394T genotype among individuals with seasonal affective disorder.
Studied the association between melanopsin gene polymorphism and pupillary light reflex under diverse photic conditions, including different intensities and wavelengths.
A comparison of melanopsin with the mechanisms documented for vertebrate (bovine) and invertebrate (squid) visual photoreceptors shows that such a mechanism is not affected by the diversity of the three chromophore cavities.
An action spectrum for the calcium response in cells expressing human melanopsin had the predicted form for an opsin (zeige RHO Proteine) : vitamin A1 pigment and peaked at 479 nm. The G-protein selectivity and spectral sensitivity of human melanopsin is similar to that previously described for rodents.
A subset of M1 and M1d melanopsin ganglion cells are biplexiform with dendrites ramifying both in the inner plexiform layer and either in the inner plexiform layer or the outer plexiform layer. We have found five types of Outer Retinal Dendritess in the OPL (zeige ZIC1 Proteine) categorized by their morphology and the melanopsin ganglion cell subtype from which they originate.
our results highlight how the kinetics of the melanopsin photoresponse differentially regulate distinct light-mediated behaviors.
Melanopsin contributes to irradiance modulation of narrowband oscillations in the retina and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus.
discovery that amino acid sequence features of melanopsin protein contribute to the functional properties of the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells
When compared with wildtype responses, sleep onset in melanopsin (OPN4-/-) mice was significantly advanced under blue light, whereas under violet and green light it was significantly delayed.
Melanopsin overexpression in RGCs enhanced the amplitude and duration of their light response, and silencing them with Kir2.1 (zeige KCNJ2 Proteine) significantly suppressed the increased mTOR (zeige FRAP1 Proteine) signaling and axon regeneration that were induced by melanopsin
mice null for melanopsin (Opn4-/-), lost significantly more weight than wild-type controls or mice lacking rod and cone photoreceptors.
These results suggest GRK2 (zeige ADRBK1 Proteine) contributes to melanopsin deactivation, but that other mechanisms account for most of modulation of melanopsin activity in ipRGCs.
Using a combination of conventional knockout, chemogenetic, and receptor-silent substitution manipulations, we continued to show that, over higher irradiances, this increase in firing originates with inner-retinal melanopsin photoreception
Opn4 mediates wavelength-specific, light-dependent vascular relaxation.
Expressed locally in the premammillary nucleus of the hypothalamus in temperate zone birds, melanopsin is an important regulator of reproductive activity.
Opn4m2 labeling shows nuclear localization, which did not change in response to light. opn4m1, opn4m2, gr, per1b, and cry1b presented an oscillatory profile of expression in LD condition. In both DD and LD condition, dexamethasone (DEX) treatment shifted the peak expression of per1b and cry1b transcripts
Melanopsin photostimulation triggers the phosphoinositide pathway through activation of a G-Protein, G11 (zeige STK19 Proteine).
The opn4a gene is expressed continuously from 1 to 3 dpf in the presumptive preoptic area, as defined by coexpression of the orthopedia homolog (otp) gene.
description of the discovery and functional characterisation of a new melanopsin gene in fish, bird, and amphibian genomes, demonstrating that vertebrates have evolved two quite separate melanopsins
Opsins are members of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor superfamily. This gene encodes a photoreceptive opsin protein that is expressed within the ganglion and amacrine cell layers of the retina. In mouse, retinal ganglion cell axons expressing this gene projected to the suprachiasmatic nucleus and other brain nuclei involved in circadian photoentrainment. In mouse, this protein is coupled to a transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel through a G protein signaling pathway and produces a physiologic light response via membrane depolarization and increased intracellular calcium. The protein functions as a sensory photopigment and may also have photoisomerase activity. Experiments with knockout mice indicate that this gene attenuates, but does not abolish, photoentrainment. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms.
, melanopsin 2
, opsin 4 like
, putative Opsin 4
, opsin 4 (melanopsin)
, opsin 4
, putative photopigment melanopsin
, mammalian-like melanopsin
, melanopsin opn4m1