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MAPK Signalweg

Phosphorylierung ist das reversible Anhängen einer Phosphatgruppe an einen spezifischen Aminosäurerest eines Moleküls. Auf funktionaler Ebene dient die Phosphorylierung als einfacher molekularer Schalter, der die Funktion eines Proteins aktivieren, deaktivieren oder anpassen kann. Das Anhängen und die Entfernung von Phosphatgruppen gewährleistet die räumliche und zeitliche Kontrolle über die Proteinaktivität. Die Phosphorylierung wird streng überwacht von einem konkurrierenden ineinandergreifenden Netzwerk von Kinasen, die Phosphatgruppen an ein Substratprotein abgegeben, und Phosphorylasen, die sie von einem Substrat entfernen.

Mitogen-aktivierte Proteinkinasen (MAPK) sind eine hochkonservierte und ubiquitär exprimierte Familie von Proteinkinasen, die viele unterschiedliche Zielsubstrate phosphorylieren. MAP-Kinasen sind Teil einer größeren, mehrstufigen Phosphoylierungskaskade, die MAP2K und MAP3K beinhaltet. Diese mehrstufige Organisierung sorgt für Flexibilität und ermöglicht einer Vielzahl von übergeordneten Kinasen auf Reize zu antworten und die Zellfunktion durch die Aktivierung einer kleineren Teilmenge von MAP-Kinasen, die direkt mit anderen funktionellen Proteinen interagieren, zu kontrollieren.

MAP-Kinasen spielen für fast jeden zellulären Prozess eine wichtige Rolle. Die MAPK-abhängige Phosphorylierung ist an den Signalkaskaden beteiligt, die die Zellzyklusprogression, -differenzierung, -entwicklung und –apoptose regulieren.

Weiterführende Lektüre: Pearson G, Robinson F, Beers Gibson T, Xu BE, Karandikar M, Berman K, Cobb MH (April 2001). "Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways: regulation and physiological functions". Endocr. Rev. 22 (2): 153–83. doi:10.1210/er.22.2.153. PMID 11294822.

MAPK

p38 (MAP kinase p38):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. This kinase is activated by various environmental stresses and proinflammatory cytokines. The activation requires...   More...

MAPK1 - ERK2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases, also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. The activation of this kinase requires its...   More...
Antigene in dieser Kategorie:
MAPK10 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 10): MAPK10 Antikörper MAPK10 ELISA Kits MAPK10 Proteine
MAPK11 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 11): MAPK11 Antikörper MAPK11 ELISA Kits MAPK11 Proteine
MAPK12 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 12): MAPK12 Antikörper MAPK12 ELISA Kits MAPK12 Proteine
MAPK13 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 13): MAPK13 Antikörper MAPK13 ELISA Kits MAPK13 Proteine
MAPK14 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 14): MAPK14 Antikörper MAPK14 ELISA Kits MAPK14 Proteine
MAPK3 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3): MAPK3 Antikörper MAPK3 ELISA Kits MAPK3 Proteine
MAPK4 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 4): MAPK4 Antikörper MAPK4 ELISA Kits MAPK4 Proteine
MAPK6 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 6): MAPK6 Antikörper MAPK6 ELISA Kits MAPK6 Proteine
MAPK7 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 7): MAPK7 Antikörper MAPK7 ELISA Kits MAPK7 Proteine
MAPK8 - JNK: MAPK8 Antikörper MAPK8 ELISA Kits MAPK8 Proteine
MAPK9 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 9): MAPK9 Antikörper MAPK9 ELISA Kits MAPK9 Proteine

MAP2K

MAP2K1 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 1):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the dual specificity protein kinase family, which acts as a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase. MAP kinases, also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals. This protein kinase lies upstream of MAP kinases and stimulates the enzymatic activity of MAP kinases upon...   More...

MAP2K2 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 2):

The protein encoded by this gene is a dual specificity protein kinase that belongs to the MAP kinase kinase family. This kinase is known to play a critical role in mitogen growth factor signal transduction. It phosphorylates and thus activates MAPK1/ERK2 and MAPK2/ERK3. The activation of this kinase itself is dependent on the Ser/Thr phosphorylation by MAP kinase kinase kinases. Mutations in...   More...
Antigene in dieser Kategorie:
MAP2K3 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3): MAP2K3 Antikörper MAP2K3 ELISA Kits MAP2K3 Proteine
MAP2K4 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 4): MAP2K4 Antikörper MAP2K4 ELISA Kits MAP2K4 Proteine
MAP2K5 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 5): MAP2K5 Antikörper MAP2K5 ELISA Kits MAP2K5 Proteine
MAP2K6 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 6): MAP2K6 Antikörper MAP2K6 ELISA Kits MAP2K6 Proteine
MAP2K7 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 7): MAP2K7 Antikörper MAP2K7 ELISA Kits MAP2K7 Proteine

MAP3K

MAP3K1 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 1):

The protein encoded by this gene is a serine/threonine kinase and is part of some signal transduction cascades, including the ERK and JNK kinase pathways as well as the NF-kappa-B pathway. The encoded protein is activated by autophosphorylation and requires magnesium as a cofactor in phosphorylating other proteins. This protein has E3 ligase activity conferred by a plant homeodomain (PHD) in...   More...

MAP3K11 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 11):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine kinase family. This kinase contains a SH3 domain and a leucine zipper-basic motif. This kinase preferentially activates MAPK8/JNK kinase, and functions as a positive regulator of JNK signaling pathway. This kinase can directly phosphorylate, and activates IkappaB kinase alpha and beta, and is found to be involved in the...   More...
Antigene in dieser Kategorie:
MAP3K12 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 12): MAP3K12 Antikörper MAP3K12 ELISA Kits MAP3K12 Proteine
MAP3K2 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 2): MAP3K2 Antikörper MAP3K2 ELISA Kits MAP3K2 Proteine
MAP3K3 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 3): MAP3K3 Antikörper MAP3K3 ELISA Kits MAP3K3 Proteine
MAP3K4 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 4): MAP3K4 Antikörper MAP3K4 ELISA Kits MAP3K4 Proteine
MAP3K5 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 5): MAP3K5 Antikörper MAP3K5 ELISA Kits MAP3K5 Proteine
ARAF (V-Raf Murine Sarcoma 3611 Viral Oncogene Homolog): ARAF Antikörper ARAF ELISA Kits ARAF Proteine
BRAF (V-Raf Murine Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog B1): BRAF Antikörper BRAF ELISA Kits BRAF Proteine
RAF1 (V-Raf-1 Murine Leukemia Viral Oncogene Homolog 1): RAF1 Antikörper RAF1 ELISA Kits RAF1 Proteine

RAF

ARAF (V-Raf Murine Sarcoma 3611 Viral Oncogene Homolog):

This proto-oncogene belongs to the RAF subfamily of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family, and maybe involved in cell growth and development. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012].   More...

BRAF (V-Raf Murine Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog B1):

This gene encodes a protein belonging to the raf/mil family of serine/threonine protein kinases. This protein plays a role in regulating the MAP kinase/ERKs signaling pathway, which affects cell division, differentiation, and secretion. Mutations in this gene are associated with cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome, a disease characterized by heart defects, mental retardation and a distinctive facial...   More...
Antigene in dieser Kategorie:
RAF1 (V-Raf-1 Murine Leukemia Viral Oncogene Homolog 1): RAF1 Antikörper RAF1 ELISA Kits RAF1 Proteine

RAS

NRAS - GTPase NRas

This is an N-ras oncogene encoding a membrane protein that shuttles between the Golgi apparatus and the plasma membrane. This shuttling is regulated through palmitoylation and depalmitoylation by the ZDHHC9-GOLGA7 complex. The encoded protein, which has intrinsic GTPase activity, is activated by a guanine nucleotide-exchange factor and inactivated by a GTPase activating protein. Mutations in...   More...

HRAS (V-Ha-Ras Harvey Rat Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog):

This gene belongs to the Ras oncogene family, whose members are related to the transforming genes of mammalian sarcoma retroviruses. The products encoded by these genes function in signal transduction pathways. These proteins can bind GTP and GDP, and they have intrinsic GTPase activity. This protein undergoes a continuous cycle of de- and re-palmitoylation, which regulates its rapid exchange...   More...

Activators

CDC42 (Cell Division Cycle 42 (GTP Binding Protein, 25kDa)):

The protein encoded by this gene is a small GTPase of the Rho-subfamily, which regulates signaling pathways that control diverse cellular functions including cell morphology, migration, endocytosis and cell cycle progression. This protein is highly similar to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc 42, and is able to complement the yeast cdc42-1 mutant. The product of oncogene Dbl was reported to...   More...

PAK1 (P21-Activated Kinase 1):

This gene encodes a family member of serine/threonine p21-activating kinases, known as PAK proteins. These proteins are critical effectors that link RhoGTPases to cytoskeleton reorganization and nuclear signaling, and they serve as targets for the small GTP binding proteins Cdc42 and Rac. This specific family member regulates cell motility and morphology. Alternatively spliced transcript...   More...
Antigene in dieser Kategorie:
GCK - Glucokinase: GCK Antikörper GCK ELISA Kits GCK Proteine
NRAS - GTPase NRas: NRAS Antikörper NRAS ELISA Kits NRAS Proteine
MAP4K3 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 3): MAP4K3 Antikörper MAP4K3 ELISA Kits MAP4K3 Proteine
PAK2 (P21-Activated Kinase 2): PAK2 Antikörper PAK2 ELISA Kits PAK2 Proteine
HRAS (V-Ha-Ras Harvey Rat Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog): HRAS Antikörper HRAS ELISA Kits HRAS Proteine

Targets

ATF2 (Activating Transcription Factor 2):

This gene encodes a highly conserved neurotrophic factor. The recombinant form of this protein was shown to promote the survival and differentiation of dopaminergic neurons in culture, and was able to prevent apoptosis of motor neurons induced by axotomy. The encoded protein is processed to a mature secreted form that exists as a homodimer. The mature form of the protein is a ligand for the...   More...

BCL2 (B-Cell CLL/lymphoma 2):

This gene encodes an integral outer mitochondrial membrane protein that blocks the apoptotic death of some cells such as lymphocytes. Constitutive expression of BCL2, such as in the case of translocation of BCL2 to Ig heavy chain locus, is thought to be the cause of follicular lymphoma. Two transcript variants, produced by alternate splicing, differ in their C-terminal ends. [provided by...   More...

BAD (BCL2-Associated Agonist of Cell Death):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the BCL-2 family. BCL-2 family members are known to be regulators of programmed cell death. This protein positively regulates cell apoptosis by forming heterodimers with BCL-xL and BCL-2, and reversing their death repressor activity. Proapoptotic activity of this protein is regulated through its phosphorylation. Protein kinases AKT and MAP kinase,...   More...

BTG2 (BTG Family, Member 2):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the BTG/Tob family. This family has structurally related proteins that appear to have antiproliferative properties. This encoded protein is involved in the regulation of the G1/S transition of the cell cycle. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008].   More...

CANX - Calnexin

This gene encodes a member of the calnexin family of molecular chaperones. The encoded protein is a calcium-binding, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein that interacts transiently with newly synthesized N-linked glycoproteins, facilitating protein folding and assembly. It may also play a central role in the quality control of protein folding by retaining incorrectly folded protein...   More...

CASP9 - Caspase 9

This gene encodes a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes which undergo proteolytic processing at conserved aspartic residues to produce two subunits, large and small, that dimerize to form the active enzyme. This protein is processed...   More...
Antigene in dieser Kategorie:
CDT1 (Chromatin Licensing and DNA Replication Factor 1): CDT1 Antikörper CDT1 ELISA Kits CDT1 Proteine
CTTN - Cortactin: CTTN Antikörper CTTN ELISA Kits CTTN Proteine
DAPK1 - DAP Kinase 1: DAPK1 Antikörper DAPK1 ELISA Kits DAPK1 Proteine
ELK1 (ELK1, Member of ETS Oncogene Family): ELK1 Antikörper ELK1 ELISA Kits ELK1 Proteine
EIF4EBP1 (Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4E Binding Protein 1): EIF4EBP1 Antikörper EIF4EBP1 ELISA Kits EIF4EBP1 Proteine
GJA1 (Gap Junction Protein, alpha 1, 43kDa): GJA1 Antikörper GJA1 ELISA Kits GJA1 Proteine
HSPB1 (Heat Shock 27kDa Protein 1): HSPB1 Antikörper HSPB1 ELISA Kits HSPB1 Proteine
HSF4 (Heat Shock Transcription Factor 4): HSF4 Antikörper HSF4 ELISA Kits HSF4 Proteine
MCL1 - MCL-1: MCL1 Antikörper MCL1 ELISA Kits MCL1 Proteine
JUN - C-JUN: JUN Antikörper JUN ELISA Kits JUN Proteine
MKNK1 (MAP Kinase Interacting serine/threonine Kinase 1): MKNK1 Antikörper MKNK1 ELISA Kits MKNK1 Proteine
MKNK2 (MAP Kinase Interacting serine/threonine Kinase 2): MKNK2 Antikörper MKNK2 ELISA Kits MKNK2 Proteine
MAPT (Microtubule-Associated Protein tau): MAPT Antikörper MAPT ELISA Kits MAPT Proteine
MAPKAPK2 - MAPKAP Kinase 2: MAPKAPK2 Antikörper MAPKAPK2 ELISA Kits MAPKAPK2 Proteine
MAPKAPK3 - MAPKAP Kinase 3: MAPKAPK3 Antikörper MAPKAPK3 ELISA Kits MAPKAPK3 Proteine
MAPKAPK5 - MAPKAP Kinase 5: MAPKAPK5 Antikörper MAPKAPK5 ELISA Kits MAPKAPK5 Proteine
PXN - Paxillin: PXN Antikörper PXN ELISA Kits PXN Proteine
PPARG (Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor gamma): PPARG Antikörper PPARG ELISA Kits PPARG Proteine
RGS1 (Regulator of G-Protein Signaling 1): RGS1 Antikörper RGS1 ELISA Kits RGS1 Proteine
RPS6KA1 (Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase, 90kDa, Polypeptide 1): RPS6KA1 Antikörper RPS6KA1 ELISA Kits RPS6KA1 Proteine
RPS6KA2 (Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase, 90kDa, Polypeptide 2): RPS6KA2 Antikörper RPS6KA2 ELISA Kits RPS6KA2 Proteine
RPS6KA3 (Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase, 90kDa, Polypeptide 3): RPS6KA3 Antikörper RPS6KA3 ELISA Kits RPS6KA3 Proteine
RPS6KA5 (Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase, 90kDa, Polypeptide 5): RPS6KA5 Antikörper RPS6KA5 ELISA Kits RPS6KA5 Proteine
RPS6KA6 (Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase, 90kDa, Polypeptide 6): RPS6KA6 Antikörper RPS6KA6 ELISA Kits RPS6KA6 Proteine
SGK1 (serum/glucocorticoid Regulated Kinase 1): SGK1 Antikörper SGK1 ELISA Kits SGK1 Proteine
SIRT1 (Sirtuin 1): SIRT1 Antikörper SIRT1 ELISA Kits SIRT1 Proteine
Sorbs3 - Vinexin: Sorbs3 Antikörper Sorbs3 ELISA Kits Sorbs3 Proteine
SPZ1 (Spermatogenic Leucine Zipper 1): SPZ1 Antikörper SPZ1 ELISA Kits SPZ1 Proteine
STMN1 - Stathmin 1: STMN1 Antikörper STMN1 ELISA Kits STMN1 Proteine
TP53 - p53: TP53 Antikörper TP53 ELISA Kits TP53 Proteine
YAP1 (Yes-Associated Protein 1): YAP1 Antikörper YAP1 ELISA Kits YAP1 Proteine