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The cytoplasmic domain of HIV-1 Vpu contributes to the physical interaction with, and functional antagonism of chimpanzee BST-2.
the detected relationship between BST2 expression and viral load as well as with MX1 (zeige MX1 Proteine) indicate a common regulation by the interferon (zeige IFNA Proteine) response and suggest rather limited influence of BST2 in vivo on the simian immunodeficiency virus infection outcome
Data suggest that rhesus macaque tetherin and Simian immunodeficiency virus Nef undergo physical interaction leading to removal of tetherin from plasma membrane by clathrin-mediated endocytosis.
A 5-amino-acid sequence in the rhesus BST-2 cytoplasmic domain accounts for the interaction with Vpu and for rhesus BST-2 antagonism by HIV-1 Vpu.
Simian immunodeficiency virus infection results in rapid upregulation of BST-2 on peripheral blood lymphocytes.
Indirect immunofluorescence assay and western blot analysis showed that the MAb was specifically reacted with the overexpressed porcine BST-2 protein in Vero cells. The specific MAb of porcine BST-2 provides a valuable tool for further studies of BST-2 to restrict virus infection
This antibody only reacted with porcine BST-2 protein and not with human, monkey, or mouse BST-2 protein
PRRSV counteract the antiviral functions of IFITM1 (zeige IFITM1 Proteine) and Tetherin by the interaction of the Nsp3 (zeige SH2D3C Proteine) with IFITM1 (zeige IFITM1 Proteine) and the E protein with Tetherin.
The BST2 had antiviral activity against vesicular stomatitis virus, avian influenza virus and Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.
Two additional regulators of BST2 constitutive ubiquitylation and sorting to the lysosomes: the E3 ubiquitin ligases NEDD4 and MARCH8, are reported.
Coimmunoprecipitation studies indicated that non-glycosylated tetherin is stabilized through the formation of a ternary SGTA (zeige SGTA Proteine)/Vpu/tetherin complex. Although the results do not provide support for a physiological function of SGTA (zeige SGTA Proteine) in HIV-1 replication, they demonstrate that SGTA (zeige SGTA Proteine) overexpression regulates tetherin expression and stability, thus providing insights into the function of SGTA (zeige SGTA Proteine) in endoplasmic reticulum translocation
Importantly, the authors demonstrate for the first time that the HIV-2 Env (zeige ERVW-1 Proteine) induces NF-kappaB (zeige NFKB1 Proteine) activation in HEKappa293T cells. Furthermore, the anti-BST-2 activity of the HIV-2 Env (zeige ERVW-1 Proteine) is not sufficient to completely inhibit NF-kappaB (zeige NFKB1 Proteine) activity.
Data revealed that under a nutrient deficient condition, CD317 functions as an anti-apoptotic factor through AIF (zeige AIFM1 Proteine)-mediated caspase (zeige CASP3 Proteine) and autophagy-independent manner.
findings lead us to believe that BISPR and BST2 may regulate egress of HEV virions into bile in vivo. This system may also be used to scale up virus production in vitro
a non-canonical autophagy pathway reminiscent of LC3 (zeige MAP1LC3A Proteine)-associated phagocytosis contributes to Vpu counteraction of BST2 restriction.
Ebola virus GP1,2, the Ebola virus matrix protein VP40, and BST2 are at least additive with respect to the induction of NF-kappaB (zeige NFKB1 Proteine) activity.
Studied the mechanism of viral budding and tethering mediated by human BST-2/tetherin using a model of BST-2 embedded in a membrane and used steered molecular dynamics to simulate the transition from the host cell membrane associated form to the cell-virus membrane bridging form.
Disruption of BST-2 dimerization offers a potential therapeutic approach for breast cancer.
identified WDR81 as a novel gene required for tetherin trafficking and degradation in both the presence and absence of Vpu
contain the spread of herpes simplex virus type 1 in vivo, STING-dependent signaling leads to the upregulation of tetherin, a viral restriction factor
Tetherin-mediated retention of R-defective virions on the cell surface could enhance syncytium formation.
Bone marrow stromal antigen 2-mediated dendritic cell activation as a critical mechanism for how Tetherin influenced retrovirus cell-mediated immune responses that subsequently inhibited retrovirus replication in vivo.
BST-2 does not have a role in modulating Influenza A Virus in the mouse model of infection
Although Bst2 prevented Measles virus (MV) release from nonneuronal cells, its deletion had no effect on viral pathogenesis in MV-challenged mice.
BST-2 contributes to the emergence of neoplasia and malignant progression of breast cancer. BST-2 enhances cancer cell adhesion, anchorage-independency, migration, and invasion.
BST-2 protects lymphoid tissues from Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection and regulates CHIKV-induced inflammatory response by the host.
TLR4 (zeige TLR4 Proteine) and PI3K effects on BST-2 induction are at the level of transcription.
Tetherin acts as a modulator of the cell-mediated immune response against retrovirus infection in vivo.
These findings suggest that BST2 antagonism by Vpu is critical for efficient early viral expansion and dissemination during acute infection and as such is likely to confer HIV-1 increased transmission fitness.
Bone marrow stromal cells are involved in the growth and development of B-cells. The specific function of the protein encoded by the bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 is undetermined\; however, this protein may play a role in pre-B-cell growth and in rheumatoid arthritis.
bone marrow stromal antigen 2
, bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2
, HM1.24 antigen
, DAMP-1 protein homolog
, protein DAMP-1