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Balancing cell numbers during organogenesis: Six1a differentially affects neurons and sensory hair cells in the inner ear
Six1a plays an essential role at the onset of fast muscle differentiation.
six1a and pax3 (zeige PAX3 Proteine) do not function in the same regulatory network. We proposed four putative regulatory pathways to understand how six1a distinctly interacts with either myf5 (zeige MYF5 Proteine) or myod (zeige MYOD1 Proteine) during zebrafish craniofacial muscle development.
Six2 mediates the protective effects of GDNF on damaged DA neurons by regulating Smurf1 (zeige SMURF1 Proteine) expression.
Differentiation of nephron progenitors requires downregulation of Six2, a transcription factor required for progenitor maintenance, and that Notch (zeige NOTCH1 Proteine) signaling is necessary and sufficient for Six2 downregulation.
Zeb1 promotes proliferation and apoptosis and inhibits the migration of metanephric mesenchyme cells, in association with Six2.
In Six2-positive nephrogenic progenitors, GLI3 (zeige GLI3 Proteine) repressor decreased progenitor cell proliferation reducing the number of nephrogenic precursor structures in the Pallister-Hall syndrome mouse model.
Mechanistically, LIF (zeige LIF Proteine) activates STAT (zeige STAT1 Proteine), which binds to a Stat (zeige STAT1 Proteine) consensus sequence in the Six2 proximal promoter and sustains SIX2 levels.
Dicer (zeige DICER1 Proteine) ablation in the early metanephric mesenchyme results in severe renal dysgenesis despite normal initial specification of nephron progenitors and ureteric bud outgrowth.
miR181c downregulates the expression of Six2, restrain the proliferation and promote the apoptosis that even makes the nephron progenitor phenotype lose MM cells, suggesting a potential role of miR181c during the kidney development.
results reveal a functional link between Eya1 (zeige EYA1 Proteine), Six2, and Myc (zeige MYC Proteine) in driving the expansion and maintenance of the multipotent progenitors during nephrogenesis
Our findings establish Six2 as a regulator of metastasis in human breast cancers and demonstrate an epigenetic function for SIX family transcription factors in metastatic progression through the regulation of E-cadherin (zeige CDH1 Proteine).
These results implied that inhibition of Nf1 (zeige NF1 Proteine) may delay metanephros development via down-regulation of Six2.
Data show that three of the eight conserved noncoding sequences (CNSs) located within a 317-kb segment of the Six2 genomic locus were nephric enhancers.
these findings delineate the important function of the TGFbeta (zeige TGFB1 Proteine) signaling pathway in the early development of kidney and TbetaRII was shown to be able to promote the expression of Six2 through Smad3 (zeige SMAD3 Proteine) mediating transcriptional regulation and in turn activate the proliferation of MM cells.
We suggest SIX2 haploinsufficiency as a potential congenital factor could be attributed to developmental malformation of the middle ear ossicles and upper eyelid.
SIX2 deletion is associated with frontonasal dysplasia syndrome.
SIX2 overexpression and concomitantly decreased promoter methylation.
in tumors with DGCR8 (zeige DGCR8 Proteine) E518K and DROSHA (zeige DROSHA Proteine) exon 29 (miRNAPG-HS) mutations ... greater prevalence of tumors with blastemal predominant histology in patients with miRNAPG-HS and/or SIX1 (zeige SIX1 Proteine)/2 Q177R mutations
Recurrent mutations included a hotspot mutation (Q177R) in the homeo-domain of SIX1 (zeige SIX1 Proteine) and SIX2 in tumors with high proliferative potential (18.1% of blastemal cases); mutations in the DROSHA (zeige DROSHA Proteine)/DGCR8 (zeige DGCR8 Proteine) microprocessor genes
Nuclear protein (zeige RDBP Proteine) & mRNA expression of SIX2 were similar across all stages of disease, in favorable or unfavorable histology & in treatment failure or success. It is not found in normal kidney.
Lack of mutations in the coding regions of SIX2 among the sporadic microtia patients
This gene is a member of the vertebrate gene family which encode proteins homologous to the Drosophila 'sine oculis' homeobox protein. The encoded protein is a transcription factor which, like other members of this gene family, may be involved in limb or eye development.
homeobox protein six1a
, homeobox protein six1b
, homeodomain transcription factor Six1b
, sine oculis homeobox homolog 1b
, sine oculis homeobox homolog 2
, homeobox protein SIX2
, sine oculis-related homeobox 2 homolog
, sine oculis-related homeobox 2