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Apelin signaling regulates lymphatic development by promoting serine-threonine kinase Akt/protein kinase B (zeige AKT1 Proteine) activity in a VEGF-C (zeige VEGFC Proteine)/VEGF receptor (zeige FLT1 Proteine) 3-independent manner during zebrafish embryogenesis.
Apelin knockdown inhibits both hypoxia-induced endothelial cell proliferation in vitro and hypoxia-induced vessel regeneration in the caudal fin regeneration of zebrafish.
Results revealed that apelin-13 attenuated brain edema and reduced cellular death by suppressing apoptosis after intracerebral hemorrhage in mice.
Apelin-36-[L28C(30kDa (zeige TAF10 Proteine)-PEG (zeige PAEP Proteine))] provides a starting point for the development of diabetes therapeutics that are devoid of the blood pressure effects associated with canonical APJ (zeige APLNR Proteine) activation
miR (zeige MLXIP Proteine)-503 promotes cardiac fibrosis via miR (zeige MLXIP Proteine)-503-Apelin-13-TGF-beta (zeige TGFB1 Proteine)-CTGF (zeige CTGF Proteine)-collagen production pathway.
Apelin directly interferes with thrombin-mediated signaling pathways and platelet activation, secretion, and aggregation, but not with ADP and thromboxane A2-mediated pathways.
Apelin regulates inflammatory response, diminishes inflammatory remote organ damage and improves survival in an experimental model of burn sepsis, which is at least partly mediated by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (zeige AKT1 Proteine) dependent pathway.
apelin is a potential activator of inflammation factors through the PI3K/Akt (zeige AKT1 Proteine) and Erk (zeige EPHB2 Proteine) signaling pathway and is potential therapeutically relevant to inflammatory responses of microglia cells
we showed the effect of Apelin on RAW264.7 macrophage under normal and hypoxic condition, which could further influence the angiogenesis and inflammation process that promoted by macrophages.
PDL- and Cer-induced CP resulted in increased production of the pancreatic BMP2, apelin, and PTHrP signaling systems and that significant cross talk occurred among pancreatic BMP2, apelin, and PTHrP
Therapeutic potential of apelin to prevent myocardial metabolic abnormalities in heart failure paired with obesity.
Data suggest that CTRP3 (cartducin) up-regulates expression and secretion of adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, visfatin, and apelin) in adipocytes; these responses to CTRP3 are down-regulated by insulin resistance or inhibition of AMPK signaling.
APJ receptor (zeige APLNR Proteine) in granulosa cells and both apelin and the APJ receptor (zeige APLNR Proteine) in theca tissues are expressed in bovine ovary.
The data suggest that apelin/APJ (zeige APLNR Proteine) system is involved in the mechanism regulating angiogenesis during follicle maturation as well as during corpora lutea formation and function in the bovine ovary.
Apelin concentrations are associated with altered plaque stability mediator levels and atherosclerosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. These relations are partially dependent on population origin and systemic inflammatory status.
APLN and APLNR (zeige APLNR Proteine) are present in human ovarian cells and APLN increases IGF1 (zeige IGF1 Proteine)-induced steroidogenesis in granulosa cells through an increase in HSD3B (zeige HSD3B1 Proteine) protein expression and activation of the MAPK3 (zeige MAPK3 Proteine)/1 and Akt (zeige AKT1 Proteine) pathways. Therefore, APLN and APLNR (zeige APLNR Proteine) may play a role in human follicular development and the pathogenesis of PCOS.
Apelin levels mirror the cardiovascular changes seen in pregnancy. Serum and placental apelin levels are decreased in intrauterine growth restriction .
Reduced apelin levels may enhance vasoconstriction to influence high BP and heart's workload in EH and ACS.
Our data suggest that tumor Apelin can be used as a marker to evaluate clinical characteristics and predict prognosis in GC patients.
The apelin/APLNR (zeige APLNR Proteine) axis regulates cholangiocarcinoma cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis.
While plasma apelin increases in obesity, it decreases with increasing age and pubertal stage
Increased plasma concentrations of apelin are associated with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction severity.
Data suggest that the differential expression of Apelin and Apelin receptor APJ (zeige APLNR Proteine) yields a "self-generated" gradient mechanisms that accelerates the extension of the sprout.
Postmenopausal breast cancer patients had high levels of apelin and high BMI scores.
Pig Apelin mRNA was sequenced.
This gene encodes a peptide that functions as an endogenous ligand for the G protein coupled receptor APJ. The encoded protein is synthesized as a prepropeptide that is processed into biologically active C-terminal fragments. The peptide fragments activate different tissue specific signaling pathways that regulate diverse biological functions including fluid homeostasis, cardiovascular function and insulin secretion. This protein also functions as a coreceptor for the human immunodeficiency virus 1.
, apelin, AGTRL1 ligand
, APJ endogenous ligand
, apelin; peptide ligand for APJ receptor
, AGTRL1 ligand