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Human TLR4 Protein expressed in Wheat germ - ABIN1322876
Hendriks, Hua, Chabot: Analysis of mechanistic pathway models in drug discovery: p38 pathway. in Biotechnology progress 2008
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Single-molecule experiments demonstrate that PRDX5 specifically binds to TLR4. PRDX5 binding induces a cellular mechanoresponse.
These results show that isofraxidin binds to and inhibits MD-2, thus preventing TLR4/MD-2 complex formation without altering TLR2 signalling. We demonstrated that isofraxidin promoted cell proliferation and inhibited the lipopolysaccharide induced inflammatory response through suppressing the activation of the TLR4/MD-2 axis and NF-kappaB signalling in human osteoarthritis chondrocytes.
SLAMF1 is required for TLR4-mediated TRAM-TRIF-dependent signaling in human macrophages.
In a cohort of 114 Greek COPD patients, we confirmed that the presence of TLR4-D299G or TLR4-T399I SNPs was significantly associated with an earlier COPD stage (p = 0.003 and p = 0.009, respectively). In comparison, the absence of any analyzed polymorphism, including those of TLR2-R753Q and genotypic MBL deficiency, was associated with a more severe disease phenotype, characterized by more frequent exacerbation.
Herpes simplex virus type 2 infection could stimulate AP-1 activation via TLR4-MyD88/TRIF axis, and then feedback to up-regulate TLR4 expression in human genital epithelial cells.
The findings of this study suggest that PSAP can promote glioma cell proliferation via the TLR4/NF-kappaB signaling pathway and may be an important target for glioma treatment.
these results show that palmitate induces TLR4dependent MIP-1alpha expression requiring the MyD88 recruitment and activation of MAPK, NF-kappaB/AP-1 and PI3K signaling. It implies that the increased systemic levels of free fatty acid palmitate in obesity/T2D may contribute to metabolic inflammation through excessive production of MIP-1a.
High expression of the HMGB1-TLR4 axis is closely associated with Parkinson disease development, progression, drug treatment effectiveness, staging, and disease duration and has great significance for PD diagnosis and treatment.
A relationship was identified between TLR4 methylation and subjective and physiological arousal during acute alcohol intoxication that depends on self-reported alcohol use.
Findings suggest that hyaluronan (HA) fragments interact with toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) and lead macrophage polarization to an M2-like phenotype via miR-935.
Association of TRPV1 and TLR4 through the interleukin-1 receptor domain potentiates TRPV1 activity by blocking activation-induced desensitization
NOD1 expression seems to be modulated by 5-HT and other immune receptors as TLR2 and TLR4. This study could clarify the relation between both the intestinal serotonergic system and innate immune system, and their implications in intestinal inflammation.
in human glioma U251 cells, TLR4 functions to reverse tumor differentiation, and it may be a target for glioma prevention and therapy.
Low TLR4 expression is correlated with tumor progression in Bladder Cancer
Comprehensive transcriptome analysis of UVA-specific responses and demonstrated that several biological pathways related to TLR and inflammation pathways are associated with highly upregulated differentially expressed genes. Differential expression of specific proteins involved in the TLR4/ERK pathway may explain the severity of skin aging by replicative senescence.
Result provide evidence that TLR4 mediates PRDX2-involvement in myocyte hypertrophy and survival in acute myocardial infarction.
In the present study, high levels of CC motif ligand 19 (CCL19), signaling pathways such as Tolllike receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factorkappaB (NFkappaB), and proinflammatory factors including interleukin6 (IL6) and tumor necrosis factora (TNFa) were detected in Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease patients
Both MyD88 expression and TLR4 expression are associated with favorable survival in low-grade serous ovarian carcinoma.
Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms seem not to be associated with the type 2 diabetes and prediabetes but Asp299Gly may contribute to diabetic retinopathy predisposition.
Evaluation of toll-like receptor 4 expression in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by lipopolysaccharides from Shigella.
Results suggest that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) blockage could be a potential candidate for therapeutic interventions to reduce malaria-induced pathology both in the mother and the fetus.
TLR4-dependent stimulation of macrophage phagocytosis requires mTORC1-directed SREBP-1a-dependent lipid synthesis.
Elimination of TLR4 receptors prevents autophagy dysfunctions in the structural synaptic connections induced by binge alcohol drinking.
Study demonstrates that TLR4 deficiency mice are protected from Ang-II induced renal injury by a robust antioxidant mechanism which is associated with attenuation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and macrophage activation. These data show that TLR4 plays a role in the recruitment of bone marrow-derived fibroblasts into the kidney via TGF-beta activation and TLR4 deficiency their accumulation to decrease renal fibrosis.
To regulate both TLR4-MyD88 and mTOR-autophagy pathways.
The TLR4 mediates HFD induced increase in body weight, inflammation and aortic lipid accumulation through, at least partly, the PPARgamma/ABCG1 signaling pathway.
Our findings demonstrate that alkali burn promotes the TLR4-MyD88-caspase-8 axis to cause imbalanced NLRP3/NLRP6, and DS exacerbates ocular surface damage via magnifying this imbalance.
Sca1(+)Lin(-)CD117(-) mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells regulate immature dendritic cell maturation by inhibiting TLR4-IRF8 signaling via the Notch-RBP-J pathway.
Blocking TLR4/Akt/mTOR might be an underlying basis for the anti-inflammatory effect of 20C.
It was also indicated that UA suppressed Tolllike receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor 88 and nuclear factorkappaB protein expression in mice with diabetesinduced nephropathy
The liver injury resulting from virus (adenovirus) or chemicals (CCl4) could induce an amplified (stronger/long-lasting) hepatic inflammation by releasing the ligands for TLR2/TLR4.
TLR4-induced IL-10 production in B cells is independent of MSK1/2 and CREB activation.
SIGIRR is a negative regulator of TLR4 signaling in the developing intestine, and its insufficiency results in native intestinal TLR hyper-responsiveness conducive to the development of severe experimental necrotizing enterocolitis in mice
these results suggest that constitutively active TLR4-induced inflammation in white adipose tissue is not sufficient to induce systemic insulin resistance, and that high fat diet-induced insulin resistance may require other signals in addition to TLR4-mediated inflammation.
our findings showed that very rapid antigen-specific antibody production is correlated with the TLR4-imprinted germinal centre response to AdV-based vaccine. These results provide additional evidence for the use of the AdV and a TLR agonist to induce humoral responses.
High-fat diet -induced TLR4 activation inhibited macrophage proliferation, leading to greater accumulation of recruited CD11c(+) adipose tissue macrophages.
miR-451 may relieve chronic inflammatory pain by inhibiting microglia activation-mediated inflammation via targeting TLR4.
Nitrated POPC showed anti-inflammatory potential, as assessed by the inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages activated by the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a well-described in vitro model of inflammation
Two single nucleotide polymorphisms had significant effects on the milk production for Chinese Holstein, and these SNP could be used for molecular marker-assisted selection of milk production.
PGE2 downregulates LPS-induced inflammatory responses via the TLR4-NF-kappaB signaling pathway in bovine endometrial epithelial cells.
Based on the impact of both candidate genes,TLR4 and CACNA2D1, on udder health, linear or generalized linear mixed models was applied for testing the associations of SNPs located in the genes and clinical mastitis
a single nucleotide polymorphism of the bovine toll like receptor 4 gene (TLR4) in New Zealand (NZ) Holstein-Friesian x Jersey (HF x J) cross dairy cows was associated with milk production traits
STA3 facilitates TLR4-dependent IL-6 and IL-8 production via IL-6 receptor-positive feedback in endometrial cells.
Studied genetic diversity of the Toll-like receptor gene TLR4 in Czech Red and Czech Red Pied cattle. Found 8 SNPs, which were grouped into 18 haplotypes.
TLR4 polymorphisms are associated with lower reproductive Performance.
As a pilot study, the present results revealed that identified SNPs in IL8 and TLR4 genes can be used as a genetic marker and predisposing factor for resistance/susceptibility to digital dermatitis in dairy cows. However, TLR4 gene may be a potential candidate for such disease.
Transcription levels of TLR2, TLR4, and CD14 in Holstein cows with retained placenta significantly decreased between the first and the seventh day postpartum.
Bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 infection modulates TLR4 responsiveness in differentiated myeloid cells.
TLR2 and TLR4 mediate innate response against Cryptosporidium parvum in bovine intestinal epithelial cells.
TLR4 polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection in Holsteins
positive correlation between lower neutrophil apoptosis and higher expression of TLR2 and TLR4 with the formation of NETs and change in surface architecture.
Studied SNPs in the bovine toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and monocyte chemo attractant protein-1(CCL2) genes.
Studied bovine TLR4 gene in mastitis resistance by association as well as expression profiling analysis in crossbred cattle.
Findings indicate that intervertebral disc (IVD) cells constitutively express TLR4.
Data suggest that granulosa cells from dominant follicles express functional TLR2 and TLR4; granulosa cells appear to participate in innate immunity by responding to bacterial lipopolysaccharides/lipopeptides via TLR2 and TLR4 signaling pathways.
The expressions of host TLR2 and 4 genes were significantly higher in acidosis-resistant steers compared to those in acidosis-susceptible steers.
TLR4 and downstream adaptor molecules, transcription factors and cytokines were up-regulated when endometrial epithelial cells were stimulated with LPS
Data from an in vitro co-culture model suggest that an early response of endometrium in uterine infection is up-regulation of expression of TLR4 and CD14 (monocyte differentiation antigen CD14).
TLR2, 3, 4, and 8 mRNA expression is strongly upregulated and correlates with the progression of atherosclerosis in the aorta. Fluvastatin significantly inhibited this progress and reduced inflammation via TLR downregulation.
The expression of TLR4 protein and mRNA, the level of activated NF-kappaB (p65) were respectively detected.
Lipopolysaccharide upregulates the expression of rabbit TLR2 and 4 in the uterine body and horn, and the expression of TLR4 in the ovary.
Polydatin might have a protective effect on lung ischemia/reperfusion injury by down-regulating TLR4 and NF-kappaB expression, then inhibiting the release of mediators of inflammation as ICAM-1.
SNPs associated with incidence of digestive disorders
TLR4 expression is upregulated in the brain after experimental subarachnoid haemorrhage
The elevated expression of TLR4 was detected after SAH and peaked on day 3 and 5. TLR4 is increasingly expressed in a parallel time course to the development of cerebral vasospasm in a rabbit experimental model of SAH.
Data suggest that expression of TLR4 in intestinal mucosa can be regulated by dietary factors; here, flaxseed oil down-regulates expression of TLR4 in piglet model of necrotizing enterocolitis.
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae induces alveolar Macrophages to produce proinflammatory cytokines via upregulation of TLR4 and NF-kappaB.
The TWEAK-independent Fn14 activation augments TLR4-mediated inflammatory responses in the intestine of piglets.
These results further confirm the involvement of the TLR4 signaling pathway in resistance to E. coli F18 in Meishan weaned piglets.
Data suggest expression of TLR4 and NFKB (nuclear factor kappa B) are regulated by dietary factors affecting innate immunity; here, Lactobacillus acidophilus in feed down-regulates expression of TLR4 and NFKB in mononuclear cells after LPS challenge.
At 30 days after autotransplantation of a pig kidney, mRNA expression increases for TLR4.
Data suggest TLR2, TLR4, and calcium signaling in enterocytes play principal roles in mucosal immunity against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli; probiotic Lactobacillus delbrueckii and its extracellular polysaccharides appear to stimulate TLR2/TLR4.
TLR2 is required for the suppression of TLR4 signaling activation.
The current study screened for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TLR4 gene and tested their association with Salmonella fecal shedding.
The role of TLR2, TLR4 and RP105/MD1 in the immunoregulatory effect of acidic exopolysaccharides from Lactobacillus plantarum N14, is reported.
Data suggest expression of TLR4 in liver can be regulated by dietary factors; here, supplementation with aspartate down-regulates expression of TLR4 in liver in a model of liver disease.
Fish Oil attenuates the activation of the HPA axis induced by LPS challenge. So it may be associated with decreasing the production of brain or peripheral proinflammatory cytokines through inhibition of TLR4 and NOD signaling pathways in weaned pigs.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms in TLR4 is associated with immune response to gram-negative bacterial infections.
The complete coding sequence of TLR4 gene in Min pig and 3 variants with single point mutations were obtained.
The relationship between TLR4 single nucleotide polymorphisms and the transcription levels of cytokines indicate that they are related to the modulation of the cytokine mediated immune response in pigs.
An alteration from cysteine to tryptophan at position 506 (C506W) caused loss of ability to induce nuclear factor-kappaB activation after lipid A stimulation.
These findings showed that TLR4 takes part in airway mucosal defense systems as a unique exogenous potentiator of electrolyte-water secretion from acinar cells, and that NO/cGMP/cGKsignaling is involved in this rapid TLR4 signaling pathway.
Three new alleles were isolated for exon 1 of the TLR4 gene.
similarity in TLR4 staining in macrophages, epithelium and vascular endothelium among dog, pig and cattle
A high level of conservation of TLR4 gene size and sequence, especially for the two last exons and particularly in the sequence corresponding to the LRRs and TIR domain, is observed between species
expression of TLR 2, 4 and 6 as transcript and protein in the placenta (chorioallantois) of 14 foals born alive
This study provides the basis for comparative investigations into the impact of different stimuli on the cellular expression of TLRs 2, 4 and 6 in order to find out if TLRs are involved in the pathogenesis of endometrial diseases and may help to understand as to why some mares develop persistent endometritis.
The research findings suggest that Th17 cells are involved in active equine inflammatory bowel disease, and that TLR4 expression was increased in affected horses.
A low steady expression of TLR4, MD-2 and CD14 mRNA was demonstrated for the intestinal samples with no variation between the intestinal segments analysed.
In the present study, the authors show that TLR4 expression is significantly decreased following the exogenous expression of BPV-1 E2 and E7 in primary equine fibroblasts.
evidence that pulmonary intravascular macrophages are equipped with TLR4 to handle and rapidly respond to circulating endotoxins
TLR4/MD-2 complex is responsible for recognition of Rhodococcus spheroides lipopolysaccharide as an agonist in equine cells.
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family which plays a fundamental role in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immunity. TLRs are highly conserved from Drosophila to humans and share structural and functional similarities. They recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns that are expressed on infectious agents, and mediate the production of cytokines necessary for the development of effective immunity. The various TLRs exhibit different patterns of expression. This receptor has been implicated in signal transduction events induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) found in most gram-negative bacteria. Mutations in this gene have been associated with differences in LPS responsiveness. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.
, homolog of Drosophila toll
, lipopolysaccharide response
, Toll-like receptor4 protein
, Toll-like receptor 4-like protein