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Genetic interaction experiments demonstrate Syx4, Syt4 (zeige SYT4 Proteine), and Nlg1 regulate synaptic growth and plasticity through both shared and parallel signaling pathways.
Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy revealed a colocalization of syntaxin 4 with a MVB-specific marker, exosomes and hepatitis C virus (HCV) core, which suggests a fraction of syntaxin 4 is associated with exosomes loaded with HCV. Altogether, it is assumed that syntaxin 4 is a novel essential cellular factor for the release of HCV.
The authors found that activation of dendritic cells by bacterial lipopolysaccharide leads to increased Forster resonance energy transfer-fluorescence of fluorescently labeled syntaxin 4 with VAMP3 (zeige VAMP3 Proteine) specifically at the plasma membrane, indicating increased SNARE (zeige NAPA Proteine) complex formation, whereas FRET with other tested SNAREs was unaltered.
Data suggest MUNC18C (zeige STXBP3 Proteine) is required for STX4-mediated invadopodium formation and tumor invasion of extracellular matrix; N-terminal STX4 fragment binds to MUNC18C (zeige STXBP3 Proteine) and inhibits interactions of STX4 with synaptosome-associated protein 23 (SNAP23 (zeige SNAP23 Proteine)) and vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2 (zeige VAMP2 Proteine)). Fibrosarcoma/adenocarcinoma cell lines were used in these studies. (MUNC18C (zeige STXBP3 Proteine) = syntaxin binding protein MUNC18C (zeige STXBP3 Proteine); STX4 = syntaxin 4)
The analysis revealed three candidate genes GSK3B, PTPN1 (zeige PTPN1 Proteine), STX4 that are differentially expressed in study subjects. GSK3B was highly significant in Ps-T2D (P=0.00018, FR=-26.6), followed by Ps (P=0.0028, FR=-14.5) and T2D groups (P=0.032, FR=-5.9). PTPN1 (zeige PTPN1 Proteine) showed significant association only with PS-T2D (P=0.00027, FR=-8.5). STX4 showed significant association with both Ps (P=0.0002, FR=-20) and Ps-T2D (P=0.0016, FR=-11.2).
When the expression of STX4 mRNA was inhibited with short or small interfering, or silencing, RNA in macrophages, the survival of Brucella melitensis was significantly reduced.
Syntaxin-4 has a role in mediating exocytosis of pre-docked and newcomer insulin (zeige INS Proteine) granules underlying biphasic glucose-stimulated insulin (zeige INS Proteine) secretion in human pancreatic beta cells
Increased level of SNAP23 (zeige SNAP23 Proteine)-Syntaxin4-VAMP7 (zeige VAMP7 Proteine) interaction correlates with decreased Syntaxin4 phosphorylation and trafficking of MT1-MMP (zeige MMP14 Proteine) to invadopodia during cellular invasion.
upregulation of Syntaxin 4 is sufficient to significantly improve insulin (zeige INS Proteine) secretory function to human type 2 diabetes islets retaining low levels of residual function
STX4 is implicated in the antibody secretion.
Syntaxin-4 plays a vital role in exocytosis of IgE from plasma cells. Knock-down of syntaxin-4, but not VAMP3 dramatically reduced IgE secretion from U266 plasma cells causing it to accumulate in the cell.
Stx4a plays a critical role in bone matrix production by osteoblasts.
Syntaxin-4 not only bound to laminin but also latched onto the glycosaminoglycan side chains of syndecan-1 (zeige SDC1 Proteine), a laminin receptor that mediates epithelial morphogenesis. Thus, temporal extracellular extrusion of syntaxin-4 emerged as a novel regulatory element for laminin-induced mammary epithelial cell behaviors.
Syn4 transgenic mice with high level expression of Syn4 had a significant extension of lifespan (33% increase in median) and showed increased peripheral insulin (zeige INS Proteine) sensitivity, even at ages where controls exhibited age-related insulin (zeige INS Proteine) resistance.
Non-directional stimulation with extracellular syntaxin-4 induces a dramatic morphological change in teratocarcinoma F9 cells and in several endodermal markers, both of which effects are reminiscent of the cells treated with all-trans retinoic acid.
Delivery of GLUT4 (zeige SLC2A4 Proteine) to the plasma membrane is mediated by formation of functional SNARE (zeige VTI1B Proteine) complexes containing syntaxin4, SNAP23 (zeige SNAP23 Proteine), and VAMP2 (zeige VAMP2 Proteine).
data support a mechanistic model for gelsolin's role in insulin (zeige INS Proteine) exocytosis: gelsolin (zeige GSN Proteine) clamps unsolicited soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (zeige NSF Proteine) attachment receptor-regulated exocytosis through association with Syn4 which is relieved upon stimulus-induced calcium influx to activate gelsolin (zeige GSN Proteine) to facilitate insulin (zeige INS Proteine) exocytosis
Syntaxin 4 activation and insulin (zeige INS Proteine) release in the absence of the glucose stimulus, consistent with nitrosative stress and dysfunctional exocytosis
functions as the necessary t-SNARE (zeige VTI1B Proteine) protein responsible for correct fusion of the GLUT8 (zeige SLC2A8 Proteine)-containing vesicle with the plasma membrane in the mouse blastocyst
Interacts with tomosyn (zeige STXBP5 Proteine) and plays a role in insulin (zeige INS Proteine)-stimulated GLUT4 (zeige SLC2A4 Proteine) translocation.
female Syn4 transgenic mice exhibited an increased rate of glucose clearance during glucose tolerance tests that was repressible by the administration of tetracycline
Potentially involved in docking of synaptic vesicles at presynaptic active zones (By similarity).
, syntaxin 4
, renal carcinoma antigen NY-REN-31
, syntaxin 4A (placental)