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KISS1 expression is decreased during carcinogenesis in gastric mucosa. More advanced tumors and more aggressive histological types produce lower KISS1 levels. In addition, no KISS1R is produced in malignant gastric epithelium, while KISS1R is only weakly expressed in normal gastric epithelium.
Expression levels of MACC1, CD44, Twist1, and KiSS-1 are related to duration of overall survival among patients with colonic adenocarcinoma.
Data suggest KISS1 as a great candidate for Cervical cancer (CC) molecular markers or as a therapeutic target for CC. Also, HPV presence does not seem to alter the KISS1 expression in CC
KiSS-1 metastasis-suppressor protein (KISS1) expression promotes secretion of proangiogenic biomarkers and factors modulating anti-cancer immune responses.
The genetic variation of KISS1 gene may be a factor contributing to polycystic ovary syndrome development.
Kisspeptin and spexin serum levels in women were negatively correlated with obesity and insulin resistance.
Data suggest that women with PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome) exhibit increased serum kisspeptin-1 levels.
Our studies revealed that KISS1 inhibits glycolysis and carbon sources for endogenous fatty acid oxidation (FAO).
KiSS1 gene is a novel mediator of TGFbeta-mediated cell invasion in triple negative breast cancer.
Kisspeptin signaling modulates steroid biosynthesis in Leydig cells. Kisspeptin produced by the interstitium targets spermatogonia and sperm cells to affect spermatogenesis onset/progression and sperm functions, respectively.
Kisspeptin inhibited tumor growth through an EIF2AK2dependent mechanism, and an in vivo metastasis assay identified kisspeptinactivated EIF2AK2 signaling as critical for the suppression of distant metastasis.
kisspeptin surge in serum and urine may be used as a marker for dominant follicle development and pre-ovulation.
High plasma kisspeptin-1 is associated with premature thelarche.
expression appears to be up-regulated in adenomyotic as compared with eutopic glandular endometrium of patients with, as well as women without, adenomyosis
Data suggest that subjects with anorexia nervosa display broad spectrum of physical activity (2479-26,047 steps/day) which shows a negative correlation with plasma kisspeptin levels and a positive association with plasma ghrelin levels.
Kisspeptin-10 may contribute to accelerate the progression and instability of atheromatous plaques, leading to plaque rupture. The GPR54 antagonist may be useful for prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis.
Kiss-10 levels are significantly altered by malignancy and tumour subtypes even in patients with small renal tumours
Study compared kisspeptin-54 and kisspeptin-10 to gain an insight into why KP-54 elicits more sustained responses than KP-10 after systemic delivery
we conclude that KISS-1 can inhibit the proliferation of osteosarcoma in vitro by accelerating the processes of apoptosis and autophagy.
These findings suggest that infundibular kisspeptin neurons are sensitive to circulating sex steroid hormones throughout life and that the sex reversal observed in MTF transsexuals might reflect, at least partially, an atypical brain sexual differentiation.
Larval zebrafish that have a stop codon upstream of the active Kisspeptin1 peptide have a deficiency in learning to avoid a shock predicted by light. Electrophysiology indicates that Kisspeptin1 has a concentration-dependent effect on ventral habenula neurons: depolarizing at low concentrations and hyperpolarizing at high concentrations. Two-photon calcium imaging shows that mutants have reduced raphe response to shock.
kiss1 and ghrh3 double mutants retain reproductive capacity
results reveal the pattern of kisspeptin neurones and their connections with GnRH3 neurones in the brain, suggesting distinct mechanisms for Kiss1 and Kiss2 in regulating reproductive events in zebrafish.
These findings implicate that Kiss1 could modulate fear responses mediated by 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 receptors
not absolutely required for zebrafish reproduction
Habenular kisspeptin modulates fear in the zebrafish.
These findings suggest that the autocrine-regulated habenular Kiss1 neurons indirectly regulate the serotonergic system in the raphe nuclei through the habenula-interpeduncular nucleus in the zebrafish.
Dada show that kiss1-expressing neurons are only located in the habenular nucleus, while kiss2-expressing neurons are found in the dorsal and ventral hypothalamus.
The zebrafish kiss1 was expressed in brain, intestine, adipose tissue and testis.
Kiss1/Kiss1r system may participate in puberty initiation in fish as well.
These results identify SIRT1-mediated inhibition of Kiss1 as key epigenetic mechanism by which nutritional cues and obesity influence mammalian puberty.
This study showed for the developmental profile of kisspeptin in the mouse pituitary.
while uterine growth was fully rescued by E2 treatment of Kiss1(-/-) mice and by genetic restoration of kisspeptin signaling in GnRH neurons in Kiss1r(-/-) mice, functional adenogenesis was only marginally restored. Thus, while uterine growth is largely dependent on ovarian E2-output via central kisspeptin signaling, peripheral kisspeptin signaling is indispensable for endometrial adenogenesis and function
The findings are consistent with the idea that, during metabolic deficiency, AgRP signaling contributes to infertility by inhibiting Kiss1 neurons.
Study used Cre-lox technology to selectively ablate tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) from Kiss1 cells. Surprisingly, despite a practically complete knock-out of TH from Kiss1 cells, study found that all aspects of puberty, reproductive hormone secretion, and fertility were normal in Kiss THKOs. This suggests that dopamine synthesized in Kiss1 cells is not required for normal puberty and reproduction.
Kisspeptin governs both mate preference and sexual motivation in female mice, indicating that sexual behavior and ovulation are coordinated by the same neuropeptide.
POMC and AgRP neurons receive direct steroid- and frequency-dependent glutamatergic synaptic input from Kiss1(ARC) neurons in male mice
mice carrying Stat5a/b inactivation specifically in kisspeptin cells were generated. These mutants exhibited an early onset of estrous cyclicity, indicating that STAT5 transcription factors exert an inhibitory effect on the timing of puberty.
steroidal environment and energy state negatively regulate kisspeptin (Kiss1), neurokinin B (Tac2), and dynorphin (Pdyn) gene expression.
loss of PGR impairs kisspeptin secretory machinery and therefore that PGR plays a critical role in regulating kisspeptin secretion.
expression in anteroventral periventricular nucleus cells increases with estradiol exposure
Neurons in the hypothalamus produce Kiss1 and can synchronize their activity and activate GnRH neurons thus coordinating reproduction and fertility.
Our data indicate the absence of the circadian input to Kiss1 in pregnancy, despite high gestational estradiol levels and normal clock gene expression, and may suggest a disruption of a kisspeptin-specific diurnal rhythm that operates in the nonpregnant state.
medial amygdala expression increases around puberty, coincident with developmental increases in sex steroids
kiss1 and kiss1r mRNA levels were significantly higher in old compared to reproductive-aged mice, and diet-induced obesity did not alter kiss1 or kiss1r mRNA levels. Compared to young control mice, young MCP-1 knockout mice had significantly lower ovarian kiss1 mRNA
In the anteroventral periventricular, ERalpha is required but not ERbeta or GPR30, vs the arcuate nucleus Kiss-expressing cell lines that require GPR30, and either ERalpha and/or ERbeta.
Data show that estradiol has no effect on kisspeptin (Kiss1) mRNA expression in prepubertal Kiss1 cell-specific estrogen receptoralpha knockout (KERalphaKO) mice.
The results suggest that the 5'-upstream region of Kiss1 locus functions as an enhancer for the arcuate nucleus Kiss1 gene expression in mice.
progesterone signaling specifically in kisspeptin cells essential for the positive feedback induction of normal LH surges, ovulation, and normal fertility in females
This study assessed the expression of kisspeptin 10 (Kp-10) and its effects on the proliferation and apoptosis of bovine granulosa cells.[Kp-10]
The metabolism of kisspeptin 10 [Kp-10] and kisspeptin-1 receptor [Kiss-1R] in epithelial cells isolated from bovine placentas at the first trimester are reported.[Kp-10; Kiss-1R]
Kisspeptin neuronal system plays an essential role as the gatekeeper of reproduction via stimulating GnRH secretion.(review)
The effects of kisspeptin on gonadotropin release in non-human mammals.
In addition to activating the gonadotropic axis, kisspeptin can activate the somatotropic axis in ruminants.
This gene is a metastasis suppressor gene that suppresses metastases of melanomas and breast carcinomas without affecting tumorigenicity. The encoded protein may inhibit chemotaxis and invasion and thereby attenuate metastasis in malignant melanomas. Studies suggest a putative role in the regulation of events downstream of cell-matrix adhesion, perhaps involving cytoskeletal reorganization. A protein product of this gene, kisspeptin, stimulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-induced gonadotropin secretion and regulates the pubertal activation of GnRH nuerons. A polymorphism in the terminal exon of this mRNA results in two protein isoforms. An adenosine present at the polymorphic site represents the third position in a stop codon. When the adenosine is absent, a downstream stop codon is utilized and the encoded protein extends for an additional seven amino acid residues.
, malignant melanoma metastasis-suppressor
, metastasis-suppressor KiSS-1
, kisspeptin 1
, Kiss1 metastasis-suppressor
, Kiss1 variant E1a-E2b-E3
, Kiss1 variant E1b-E2a-E3
, Kiss1 variant E1b-E2b-E3
, MLL septin-like fusion