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Circulating prolactin levels may not be higher in patients with Behcet's disease than in controls (meta-analysis).
Cin85-deficient mother mice had reduced pituitary hormone prolactin secretion as a result of excessive dopamine signaling in the brain. Their offspring matured normally and produced their own pups; however, nurturing behaviors such as pup retrieval and nursing were strongly inhibited.
PRL levels were lower in psychogenic non-epileptic seizure patients with a history of sexual abuse compared to healthy controls and healthy controls with a history of sexual abuse.
In newborns, serum PRL and hGH levels show a positive correlation that can be explained by common regulatory factors or a drift phenomenon. A higher gestational week is associated with a higher PRL/hGH ratio.
High normal circulating prolactin levels predict changes in haemodynamic indices and worsening endothelial function in healthy postmenopausal women. Particularly in young postmenopausal women, prolactin predicts accelerated arterial stiffening.
In conclusion, the present study provides evidence supporting a significantly positive association between plasma prolactin levels and the risk of breast cancer.
Our studies have demonstrated the essential role of endogenous PRL and CDK7 in the upregulation of PRLR by E2 and provide insights for therapeutic approaches that will mitigate the transcription/expression of PRLR and its participation in breast cancer progression fueled by E2 and PRL via their cognate receptors.
GABA alpha2 and/or alpha3 receptor subtypes are involved in GABAergic modulation of prolactin secretion.
This study revealed a significant association between the prolactin polymorphic variant rs1341239 and the development of hyperprolactinemia in patients with schizophrenia.
High serum prolactin and vasoinhibin levels predict and may impact retinopathy of prematurity progression
The production of PRL by Mvarphis was increased by unknown components of rheumatoid arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis synovial fluid, where it could contribute to disease progression.
findings show that cysteine in the PRL catalytic site is endogenously phosphorylated as part of the catalytic cycle and that phosphocysteine levels change in response to Mg(2+) levels.
Depression and anxiety in subfertile males are associated with higher secretion of PRL.
Prolactin rs1341239 T allele decreases the risk of brick tea fluorosis in the Inner Mongolia in China population.
In breast cancer, PRL hormone and its signaling pathway may play an important role in maintaining tumor differentiation state and in turn better patient outcome.
Data indicate 12 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) associated with increased prolactin levels in both plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
these data strongly support a critical interplay between prolactin and estrogen via PAK1 and suggest that ligand-independent activation of ERalpha through prolactin/PAK1 may impart resistance to anti-estrogen therapies.
These data provide insight into the mechanisms guiding PRL-mediated breast cancer cell motility and invasion and highlight a significant role for phosphoTyr-PAK1 in breast cancer metastasis.
changes in mRNA expression of selected toll-like receptors (TLR2, TLR4, TLR7), stress cytokine prolactin (PRL), and proand anti-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-12, IL-10) in peripheral blood monocytes of celiac disease patients, were investiagted.
The review focuses on the role of prolactin in breast development, bone homeostasis and in breast cancer to bone metastases. (Review)
Neurons directly affected by prolactin were visualized using pSTAT5 immunohistochemistry in the brains of nursing mice. Estrogen-sensitive neurons are more likely to be affected by prolactin than by direct neuronal activation
Study shows that prolactin was sufficient to suppress corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus, however it does not appear to be required for the ongoing regulation of the CRH neurones in lactation.
Mechanistically, RL negatively regulates Stat5 phosphorylation and Elf5 expression at the onset of lactogenesis. Continuous RL exposure leads to the expansion of basal and bipotent cells in WT and MMTV-RANK acini. Overall, we demonstrate that enhanced Rank signaling impairs secretory differentiation during pregnancy by inhibition of the prolactin/p-Stat5 pathway.
Twenty-two separate mouse genes encode the placenta Prl-related hormones
Prolactin transport into mouse brain is independent of prolactin receptor.
Survivin directly participates in PRL-mediated beta cell proliferation via Akt, STAT5-PIM and ERK signalling pathways during pregnancy
AR signalling is dispensable in the male mouse pituitary for testosterone-dependent regulation of LH secretion
the mechanism by which kisspeptin is suppressed during lactation involves a number of factors, including chronically elevated levels of prolactin
Over 24 hours, males displayed no oscillation in PRL level; virgin and lactating females showed large pulses. Peaks reached 30-40 ng/mL in lactating mice and rarely exceeded 10 ng/mL in virgin mice. Pulses in lactating mice were associated with suckling.
Prolactin induces apoptosis of lactotropes
N-terminal PRL fragment increases during the involution period, has a proapoptotic effect on mammary epithelial cells, and is mainly generated by secreted cathepsin D in the extracellular space of mammary glands.
PRL constrains tumor-promoting liver inflammation.
Prolactin levels correlate with abnormal B cell maturation in MRL and MRL/lpr mouse models of systemic lupus erythematosus-like disease.
Results show that mammary prolactin decreased the latency of tumors in the absence of p53, and increased the proportion of triple-negative claudin-low carcinomas.
The relationship between prolactin, hearing loss and cochlea bone metabolism, was investigated.
PRL thus appears to be a major permissive regulator of LH action in the ovary and of its secondary extragonadal effects.
Microarray revealed 116 genes to be up or down regulated in the cochlea between young and old animals, the most prominent being prolactin (108.2 fold increase) and growth hormone (43.94 fold increase).
octamer-binding transcription factor-1 may serve as a master regulator that facilitates the DNA binding of both signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 and glucocorticoid receptor in hormone-induced beta-casein expression
ECM stiffness is a powerful regulator of the spectrum of prolactin signals and that stiff matrices and prolactin interact in a feed-forward loop in breast cancer progression
miR-146a is a downstream-mediator of 16K PRL that could potentially serve as a biomarker and therapeutic target for peripartum cardiomyopathy
Taken together, these results support novel functions of prolactin as a modulator of the innate immune response that do not involve the classical prolactin pathway.
The presence and localization of prolactin receptor are consistent with expression data reported for other species, and the presence of PIP and prolactin in seminal fluid is consistent with data generated in humans.
Functionally reciprocal mutations of the prolactin signaling pathway define hairy and slick cattle.
The single nucleotide polymorphism rs42646708 of cattle XKR4 was significantly associated with serum prolactin concentrations and explained 2.45% of the phenotypic variation.
Five mutations were identified in exonic region and eleven in associated intronic regions in PRL gene in 100 cattle from four Pakistani cattle breeds.
this study identifies a biochemical mechanism for the regulation of SCFAs on bovine GH and PRL gene transcription in dairy cow anterior pituitary cells
These data suggest that PRL protects brain endothelial cells against methamphetamine-induced toxicity
Bovine prolactin improved the expression of human transferrin through such a possible mechanism that bovine prolactin activated STAT5a transcription expression.
There was no significant difference between 1134 locus and milk performance traits of 5'-UTR of PRL gene
Staphylococcus aureus infection inhibits nuclear factor kappa B activation mediated by prolactin in bovine mammary epithelial cells.
Study of genetic variation in Yakutian cattle (Bos taurus L.) using the prolactin bPRL, growth hormone bGH, and transcription factor bPit-1 genes
This is the second study reporting single nucleotide polymorphisms in the 5'-regulatory region of PRL gene, which interfere with milk production traits.
evidence for a functional coupling between the PRL salt bridge and phosphorylation site indicates that either in vivo phosphorylation or specific mutations that destabilize the salt bridge impair biological activity.
determination of the effects of exposure to different lengths of daylight during the dry period on circulating PRL and PRL receptor mRNA expression in lymphocytes and mammary tissue during the transition to lactation
Expression of PRL and prolactin receptor (PRLR) mRNA is demonstrated for the first time in bovine corpus luteum throughout the luteal phase.
The A-->G transition at position -1043 abolishes the recognition site for Hsp92II restriction endonuclease.
Prolactin in ovarian follicular fluid stimulates endothelial cell proliferation.
Prolactin and, to a lesser extent progesterone, which increase in early pregnancy, enhance basal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in part by increasing glucokinase activity and amplifying cAMP levels.
iv infusion of prolactin primarily caused coronary, mesenteric, renal, and iliac vasoconstriction
despite a lack of clear relationship between PRL/C499T polymorphism in 5' UTR of the PRL gene and plasma prolactin cioncentration, gene polymorphism impact on reproductiove performance cannot be excluded
diameter. These results imply that the PRL gene polymorphism can be used as a molecular marker to improve fiber production without a negative effect on fiber diameter.
This gene encodes the anterior pituitary hormone prolactin. This secreted hormone is a growth regulator for many tissues, including cells of the immune system. It may also play a role in cell survival by suppressing apoptosis, and it is essential for lactation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode the same protein.
, prolactin, gene 3
, prolactin 2
, decidual prolactin
, prolactin family 1, subfamily a, member 1