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cloning of the gene and cDNA encoding cGnRH-II from zebrafish; in situ hybridization analysis of expression in adult zebrafish brains; levels quantified in the pituitary
GnRH loss-of-function affects early brain and eye formation during development.
rs6051545 (GNRH2) genetic variation may result in inadequate suppression of serum testosterone during androgen deprivation therapy. This may lead to detrimental effects of androgen deprivation therapy on prognosis in men with metastatic prostate cancer.
GnRHII expression correlated significantly with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients.
results suggest GnRH-II-induced laminin receptor precursor expression increases 67-kDa nonintegrin laminin receptor, which appears to interact with laminin in the extracellular matrix to promote MMP-2 expression and enhance ovarian cancer cell invasion
concluded that GnRHII stimulates PI3K/Akt pathway, and the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase3beta, thereby enhancing the beta-catenin-dependent up-regulation of MT1-MMP production which contributes to ovarian cancer metastasis
These preliminary data suggest that local GnRH-II may participate in the regulation of ovarian tumor growth in post-menopausal women.
GnRH-II and GnRH-I interact directly with T cells and trigger gene transcription, adhesion, chemotaxis and homing to specific organs, which may be of clinical relevance.
a novel mechanism in stimulating basal human GnRH-II gene transcription mediated by cooperative actions of multiple regulatory elements within the untranslated first exon of the gene.
regulation of GnRH-I and GnRH-II gene expression in the ovary
gonadotropin releasing hormone-II is more effective than gonadotropin releasing hormone-I in stimulating leptin secretion
GnRH-II has been identified, together with a 'putative' type II GnRH receptor, both in the central nervous system and in peripheral structures, such as tissues of the reproductive tract (both normal and tumoral).
GnRH I and GnRH II have both common and discrete cellular distributions in the placenta and decidua and suggest that these two hormones are capable of eliciting their biological actions in an autocrine and/or paracrine manner
Progesterone receptor isoform p4 is a potent regulator of GnRHRI at the transcriptional level as well as GnRH I mRNA.
GnRH-II did not affect proliferation of normal B-cells alone, and did not alter the proliferative response to IL-2.
we observed that LHRH-(1-5), the specific processed peptide of LHRH-I, upregulates LHRH-II mRNA expression in Ishikawa cells, an endometrial cell line but does not exert any influence on LHRH-I mRNA levels
Expression of GnRH2 protein and receptor (GnRHR2) is confirmed in both leiomyoma and patient-matched myometrium.
these data demonstrate the differential roles of NF-kappaB p65 and RARalpha/RXRalpha, interacting with the same sequence in the promoter of the human GnRH II gene to influence gene expression in a cell-specific manner.
GnRH II is widely expressed in prostate cancer and is an AR-regulated gene.
analysis of how GNRH I and GNRH II inhibit cell growth
GnRH-I and -II induce apoptosis in human granulosa cells through GnRH-I receptors, which mediate the proteolytic caspase cascade involving caspase-8 (the initiator) and caspase-3 and -7 (the effectors).
p-CREB, C/EBPbeta, and CBP are recruited to the CRE of the GnRH-II promoter in a temporarily defined manner to enhance its transcription in JEG-3 and OVCAR-3 cells in response to cAMP
These results suggest that social hierarchy regulates the expression of GnRH1, GnRH3, and Kiss1 without affecting 11-ketotestosterone level in male medaka.
Signal transuduction in response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone 2 in luteinizing hormone producing cells from transgenic medaka.
The protein encoded by this gene is a preproprotein that is cleaved to form a secreted 10 aa peptide hormone. The secreted decapeptide regulates reproduction in females by stimulating the secretion of both luteinizing- and follicle-stimulating hormones. Three transcript variants that encode unique proproteins but the same peptide hormone have been found for this gene.
cII gonadotropin releasing hormone
, gonadotropin-releasing hormone 2
, GnRHII precursor-like protein
, chicken-II-type gonadotropin-releasing hormone
, luliberin II
, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone II
, progonadoliberin II
, GnRH-associated peptide II
, chicken luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone II
, gonadoliberin II
, Chicken-type II gonadotropin-releasing hormone
, Progonadoliberin II
, chicken-II gonadotropin-releasing hormone
, chicken-type II gonadotropin-releasing hormone
, prepro-gonadotropin-releasing hormones-II