Zellzyklus

Any growing organism – regardless of it being single- or multi-cellular – rests upon the reiteration the growth and division of existing cells under favorable conditions. During each round of this process, the cell cycles through an ordered series of events in which its genetic information is duplicated and then splits up into two cells. These events are tightly regulated and certain checkpoints must be passed in order for the cell cycle to be completed. The loss of control of these processes is a hallmark of cancer.

The cell cycle is split up into four major phases based on the events unfolding in the cell. During the first gap phase (G1) the proteins are produced that are essential for DNA replication. The genetic information is then being replicated during the synthesis (S) phase. In the second gap phase (G2) all the components that are necessary for the separation of the duplicated DNA during the subsequent mitosis (M phase). Cells that are not actively dividing are considered to be in a quiescent state in the resting phase G0. Two checkpoints between G1/S and G2/M phase must be passed in order for the cell cycle to progress.

Once replication, DNA replication must be finished. Therefore, the major checkpoint in the cell cycle is the restriction (R) point between G1 and S phases, prior to DNA duplication, at which the cycle progresses depending on mitogenic or inhibitory factors such as DNA damage and signals from various signaling pathways. A second checkpoint is at the intersection between G2 and M phases. Progression from one phase to another is controlled by cyclin dependent kinases (CDK) and their activators, cyclins. Latter proteins are unstable and their cellular concentration cycles throughout the cell cycle. Accordingly, specific cyclin-CDK complexes are characteristic for the different cell cycle phases. In addition, their activity is further modulated by CDK inhibitors. Collectively, these factors maintain balance on a cellular level and beyond.

Pathway Abbildung als PDF downloaden

Cyclin Dependent Kinase

CDK1 (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 1):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. This protein is a catalytic subunit of the highly conserved protein kinase complex known as M-phase promoting factor (MPF), which is essential for G1/S and G2/M phase transitions of eukaryotic cell cycle. Mitotic cyclins stably associate with this protein and function as regulatory subunits. The kinase activity...   More...

CDK2 (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. This protein kinase is highly similar to the gene products of S. cerevisiae cdc28, and S. pombe cdc2. It is a catalytic subunit of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase complex, whose activity is restricted to the G1-S phase, and essential for cell cycle G1/S phase transition. This protein associates with and...   More...

CDK4 (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4):

CDK6 (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6):

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CDK2AP2 (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 Associated Protein 2): CDK2AP2 Antikörper CDK2AP2 ELISA Kits CDK2AP2 Proteine
CDK3 (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 3): CDK3 Antikörper CDK3 ELISA Kits CDK3 Proteine
CDKL3 (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase-Like 3): CDKL3 Antikörper CDKL3 ELISA Kits CDKL3 Proteine
CDK5 (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5): CDK5 Antikörper CDK5 ELISA Kits CDK5 Proteine
CDK7 (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 7): CDK7 Antikörper CDK7 ELISA Kits CDK7 Proteine
CDK8 (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 8): CDK8 Antikörper CDK8 ELISA Kits CDK8 Proteine
CDK9 (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 9): CDK9 Antikörper CDK9 ELISA Kits CDK9 Proteine

Cyclins

CCNB1 - Cyclin B1

The protein encoded by this gene is a regulatory protein involved in mitosis. The gene product complexes with p34(cdc2) to form the maturation-promoting factor (MPF). Two alternative transcripts have been found, a constitutively expressed transcript and a cell cycle-regulated transcript, that is expressed predominantly during G2/M phase. The different transcripts result from the use of...   More...

CCNE1 - Cyclin E1

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by a dramatic periodicity in protein abundance through the cell cycle. Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which contribute to the temporal coordination of each mitotic event. This cyclin forms a complex...   More...

CCNB2 - Cyclin B2

CCNE2 - Cyclin E2

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G1-S Checkpoint

CDC25A (Cell Division Cycle 25 Homolog A (S. Pombe)):

CDC25A is a member of the CDC25 family of phosphatases. CDC25A is required for progression from G1 to the S phase of the cell cycle. It activates the cyclin-dependent kinase CDC2 by removing two phosphate groups. CDC25A is specifically degraded in response to DNA damage, which prevents cells with chromosomal abnormalities from progressing through cell division. CDC25A is an oncogene, although...   More...

CDKN2B (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2B (p15, Inhibits CDK4)):

CDKN1A (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1)):

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FOXO1 (Forkhead Box O1): FOXO1 Antikörper FOXO1 ELISA Kits FOXO1 Proteine
FOXO3 (Forkhead Box O3): FOXO3 Antikörper FOXO3 ELISA Kits FOXO3 Proteine
FOXO4 (Forkhead Box O4): FOXO4 Antikörper FOXO4 ELISA Kits FOXO4 Proteine
SMAD2 (SMAD, Mothers Against DPP Homolog 2): SMAD2 Antikörper SMAD2 ELISA Kits SMAD2 Proteine
SMAD3 (SMAD, Mothers Against DPP Homolog 3): SMAD3 Antikörper SMAD3 ELISA Kits SMAD3 Proteine
SMAD4 (SMAD Family Member 4): SMAD4 Antikörper SMAD4 ELISA Kits SMAD4 Proteine
BMI1 (BMI1 Polycomb Ring Finger Oncogene): BMI1 Antikörper BMI1 ELISA Kits BMI1 Proteine
MNAT1 (Menage A Trois Homolog 1, Cyclin H Assembly Factor (Xenopus Laevis)): MNAT1 Antikörper MNAT1 ELISA Kits MNAT1 Proteine
CDC25B (Cell Division Cycle 25 Homolog B (S. Pombe)): CDC25B Antikörper CDC25B ELISA Kits CDC25B Proteine
CDC25C (Cell Division Cycle 25 Homolog C (S. Pombe)): CDC25C Antikörper CDC25C ELISA Kits CDC25C Proteine
RASGRF1 (Ras Protein-Specific Guanine Nucleotide-Releasing Factor 1): RASGRF1 Antikörper RASGRF1 ELISA Kits RASGRF1 Proteine
CDKN2C (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2C (p18, Inhibits CDK4)): CDKN2C Antikörper CDKN2C ELISA Kits CDKN2C Proteine
CDKN2D (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2D (p19, Inhibits CDK4)): CDKN2D Antikörper CDKN2D ELISA Kits CDKN2D Proteine
CDKN1A (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1)): CDKN1A Antikörper CDKN1A ELISA Kits CDKN1A Proteine
CDKN1B (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1B (p27, Kip1)): CDKN1B Antikörper CDKN1B ELISA Kits CDKN1B Proteine
CDKN1C (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1C (p57, Kip2)): CDKN1C Antikörper CDKN1C ELISA Kits CDKN1C Proteine
MYC - C-MYC: MYC Antikörper MYC ELISA Kits MYC Proteine

E2F/RB

RB1 - Retinoblastoma 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a negative regulator of the cell cycle and was the first tumor suppressor gene found. The encoded protein also stabilizes constitutive heterochromatin to maintain the overall chromatin structure. The active, hypophosphorylated form of the protein binds transcription factor E2F1. Defects in this gene are a cause of childhood cancer retinoblastoma (RB), bladder...   More...

E2F1 (E2F Transcription Factor 1):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the E2F family of transcription factors. The E2F family plays a crucial role in the control of cell cycle and action of tumor suppressor proteins and is also a target of the transforming proteins of small DNA tumor viruses. The E2F proteins contain several evolutionally conserved domains found in most members of the family. These domains include a...   More...
Antigene in dieser Kategorie:

G2-M Checkpoint

CHEK1 (Checkpoint Kinase 1):

CHEK2 (Checkpoint Kinase 2):

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MNAT1 (Menage A Trois Homolog 1, Cyclin H Assembly Factor (Xenopus Laevis)): MNAT1 Antikörper MNAT1 ELISA Kits MNAT1 Proteine
CDC25A (Cell Division Cycle 25 Homolog A (S. Pombe)): CDC25A Antikörper CDC25A ELISA Kits CDC25A Proteine
CDC25B (Cell Division Cycle 25 Homolog B (S. Pombe)): CDC25B Antikörper CDC25B ELISA Kits CDC25B Proteine
CDC25C (Cell Division Cycle 25 Homolog C (S. Pombe)): CDC25C Antikörper CDC25C ELISA Kits CDC25C Proteine
RASGRF1 (Ras Protein-Specific Guanine Nucleotide-Releasing Factor 1): RASGRF1 Antikörper RASGRF1 ELISA Kits RASGRF1 Proteine
WEE1 (WEE1 Homolog (S. Pombe)): WEE1 Antikörper WEE1 ELISA Kits WEE1 Proteine
MYT1 (Myelin Transcription Factor 1): MYT1 Antikörper MYT1 ELISA Kits MYT1 Proteine
PLK1 (Polo-Like Kinase 1): PLK1 Antikörper PLK1 ELISA Kits  
PPM1D (Protein Phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ Dependent, 1D): PPM1D Antikörper PPM1D ELISA Kits PPM1D Proteine
GADD45A (Growth Arrest and DNA-Damage-Inducible, alpha): GADD45A Antikörper GADD45A ELISA Kits GADD45A Proteine
GADD45B (Growth Arrest and DNA-Damage-Inducible, beta): GADD45B Antikörper GADD45B ELISA Kits GADD45B Proteine
GADD45G (Growth Arrest and DNA-Damage-Inducible, gamma): GADD45G Antikörper GADD45G ELISA Kits GADD45G Proteine
MDM4 - MDM4-binding Protein: MDM4 Antikörper MDM4 ELISA Kits MDM4 Proteine
BRCA1 (Breast Cancer 1): BRCA1 Antikörper BRCA1 ELISA Kits BRCA1 Proteine
RBBP8 - Retinoblastoma Binding Protein 8: RBBP8 Antikörper RBBP8 ELISA Kits RBBP8 Proteine
HIPK2 (Homeodomain Interacting Protein Kinase 2): HIPK2 Antikörper HIPK2 ELISA Kits HIPK2 Proteine
TOP2A - Topoisomerase II alpha: TOP2A Antikörper TOP2A ELISA Kits TOP2A Proteine
TERF1 - TRF1: TERF1 Antikörper TERF1 ELISA Kits TERF1 Proteine
TERF2 - TRF2: TERF2 Antikörper TERF2 ELISA Kits TERF2 Proteine
TINF2 (TIN2): TINF2 Antikörper TINF2 ELISA Kits TINF2 Proteine
TPP1 (Tripeptidyl Peptidase I): TPP1 Antikörper TPP1 ELISA Kits TPP1 Proteine
POT1 (Protection of Telomeres 1 Homolog (S. Pombe)): POT1 Antikörper POT1 ELISA Kits POT1 Proteine
TERF2IP - RAP1: TERF2IP Antikörper TERF2IP ELISA Kits TERF2IP Proteine
AURKA - Aurora A: AURKA Antikörper AURKA ELISA Kits AURKA Proteine
CDKN1A (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1)): CDKN1A Antikörper CDKN1A ELISA Kits CDKN1A Proteine
MDM2 (Mdm2 P53 Binding Protein Homolog (Mouse)):   MDM2 ELISA Kits  
MDM2 (Mdm2, p53 E3 Ubiquitin Protein Ligase Homolog (Mouse)): MDM2 Antikörper MDM2 ELISA Kits MDM2 Proteine

M Phase

INCENP (Inner Centromere Protein Antigens 135/155kDa):

In mammalian cells, 2 broad groups of centromere-interacting proteins have been described: constitutively binding centromere proteins and 'passenger,' or transiently interacting, proteins (reviewed by Choo, 1997). The constitutive proteins include CENPA (centromere protein A\; MIM 117139), CENPB (MIM 117140), CENPC1 (MIM 117141), and CENPD (MIM 117142). The term 'passenger proteins' encompasses...   More...
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AURKB - Aurora Kinase B: AURKB Antikörper AURKB ELISA Kits AURKB Proteine
AURKC - Aurora Kinase C: AURKC Antikörper AURKC ELISA Kits AURKC Proteine
CDCA8 (Cell Division Cycle Associated 8): CDCA8 Antikörper CDCA8 ELISA Kits CDCA8 Proteine
BIRC5 (Baculoviral IAP Repeat-Containing 5): BIRC5 Antikörper BIRC5 ELISA Kits BIRC5 Proteine
EPR1 (Early-Phytochrome-Responsive1): EPR1 Antikörper    

CSN Complex

GPS1 (G Protein Pathway Suppressor 1):

COPS6 (COP9 Constitutive Photomorphogenic Homolog Subunit 6 (Arabidopsis)):

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COPS2 - COP9 Constitutive Photomorphogenic Homolog Subunit 2 (Arabidopsis): COPS2 Antikörper COPS2 ELISA Kits COPS2 Proteine
COPS3 (COP9 Constitutive Photomorphogenic Homolog Subunit 3 (Arabidopsis)): COPS3 Antikörper COPS3 ELISA Kits COPS3 Proteine
COPS4 (COP9 Constitutive Photomorphogenic Homolog Subunit 4 (Arabidopsis)): COPS4 Antikörper COPS4 ELISA Kits COPS4 Proteine
COPS5 (COP9 Constitutive Photomorphogenic Homolog Subunit 5 (Arabidopsis)): COPS5 Antikörper COPS5 ELISA Kits COPS5 Proteine
COPS7A (COP9 Constitutive Photomorphogenic Homolog Subunit 7A (Arabidopsis)): COPS7A Antikörper   COPS7A Proteine
COPS7B (COP9 Constitutive Photomorphogenic Homolog Subunit 7B (Arabidopsis)): COPS7B Antikörper COPS7B ELISA Kits COPS7B Proteine
COPS8 (COP9 Constitutive Photomorphogenic Homolog Subunit 8 (Arabidopsis)): COPS8 Antikörper COPS8 ELISA Kits COPS8 Proteine

SCF Complex

CUL1 - Cullin 1

Core component of multiple cullin-RING-based SCF (SKP1- CUL1-F-box protein) E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes, which mediate the ubiquitination of proteins involved in cell cycle progression, signal transduction and transcription. In the SCF complex, serves as a rigid scaffold that organizes the SKP1-F-box protein and RBX1 subunits. May contribute to catalysis through positioning of the...   More...
Antigene in dieser Kategorie:
SKP1 (S-Phase Kinase-Associated Protein 1): SKP1 Antikörper SKP1 ELISA Kits SKP1 Proteine
RBX1 (Ring-Box 1, E3 Ubiquitin Protein Ligase): RBX1 Antikörper RBX1 ELISA Kits RBX1 Proteine
BTRC (beta-Transducin Repeat Containing): BTRC Antikörper BTRC ELISA Kits BTRC Proteine

DREAM complex

RBL1 - p107

RBL2 - p130

E2F4 (E2F Transcription Factor 4, P107/p130-Binding):

TFDP1 - DP1

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TFDP2 - DP2: TFDP2 Antikörper TFDP2 ELISA Kits TFDP2 Proteine
TFDP3 (Transcription Factor Dp Family, Member 3): TFDP3 Antikörper   TFDP3 Proteine
LIN9 (Lin-9 Homolog (C. Elegans)): LIN9 Antikörper LIN9 ELISA Kits LIN9 Proteine
LIN37 (Lin-37 Homolog (C. Elegans)): LIN37 Antikörper LIN37 ELISA Kits LIN37 Proteine
LIN54 (Lin-54 Homolog (C. Elegans)): LIN54 Antikörper LIN54 ELISA Kits LIN54 Proteine
RBBP4 - Retinoblastoma Binding Protein 4: RBBP4 Antikörper RBBP4 ELISA Kits RBBP4 Proteine
MSI3 (Histone-Binding Protein RBBP4):   MSI3 ELISA Kits MSI3 Proteine
MYBL1 (Myb-Like Protein 1): MYBL1 Antikörper MYBL1 ELISA Kits MYBL1 Proteine
MYBL2 (V-Myb Myeloblastosis Viral Oncogene Homolog (Avian)-Like 2): MYBL2 Antikörper MYBL2 ELISA Kits MYBL2 Proteine