TLR Signalweg

As part of the innate immune system the Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway contributes to the first line of defense against microbial pathogens. The innate immune system was historically considered nonspecific in response to different invading pathogens, targeting a wide array of pathogenic organisms, including viruses, bacteria, and fungi. This paradigm substantially shifted with the discovery of the Toll receptor in Drosophila.

To date, 10 members of the family have been identified in human and 13 in mouse. Homologs have also been discovered in plants, illustrating the high-degree of conservation in this receptor class.

Different TLRs recognize specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The chemical nature of these PAMPs is highly diverse; e.g. lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of gram-negative bacteria are recognized by TLR4 while TLR5 recognizes the bacterial protein flagellin. Ligands for TLR3, 7, 8, and 9 are nucleic acids, and TLR2 is specific for lipoproteins.

Binding of a TLR ligand to the N-terminal ectodomain of a TLR prompts the formation of TLR homo- or heterodimers. Following dimerization, TLR signals are transduced via a cytoplasmic C-terminal Toll IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain to a set of adapter proteins.

Downstream, TLR signaling engages two distinct pathways in which either TRIF (TICAM2) or MyD88 are the key component. Both pathways culminate in the induction of inflammatory cytokines (TNF, IL-6, IL-12), type I interferons (IFN-alpha, IFN-beta), or apoptosis. Furthermore, TLR signaling induces dendritic cell maturation and contributes consequently to the adaptive immune response.

Pathway Abbildung als PDF downloaden

Toll-Like Rezeptoren

TLR4 (Toll-Like Receptor 4):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family which plays a fundamental role in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immunity. TLRs are highly conserved from Drosophila to humans and share structural and functional similarities. They recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns that are expressed on infectious agents, and mediate the production...   More...

TLR2 (Toll-Like Receptor 2):

TLR3 (Toll-Like Receptor 3):

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TLR5 (Toll-Like Receptor 5): TLR5 Antikörper TLR5 ELISA Kits TLR5 Proteine
TLR6 (Toll-Like Receptor 6): TLR6 Antikörper TLR6 ELISA Kits TLR6 Proteine
TLR7 (Toll-Like Receptor 7): TLR7 Antikörper TLR7 ELISA Kits TLR7 Proteine
TLR8 (Toll-Like Receptor 8): TLR8 Antikörper TLR8 ELISA Kits TLR8 Proteine
TLR9 (Toll-Like Receptor 9): TLR9 Antikörper TLR9 ELISA Kits TLR9 Proteine
TLR10 (Toll-Like Receptor 10): TLR10 Antikörper TLR10 ELISA Kits TLR10 Proteine

Korezeptoren

LY96 (Lymphocyte Antigen 96):

CD36 (CD36 Molecule (thrombospondin Receptor)):

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CD14 (CD14 Molecule): CD14 Antikörper CD14 ELISA Kits CD14 Proteine
LBP (Lipopolysaccharide Binding Protein): LBP Antikörper LBP ELISA Kits LBP Proteine

Adapter

MYD88 (Myeloid Differentiation Primary Response Gene (88)):

This gene encodes a cytosolic adapter protein that plays a central role in the innate and adaptive immune response. This protein functions as an essential signal transducer in the interleukin-1 and Toll-like receptor signaling pathways. These pathways regulate that activation of numerous proinflammatory genes. The encoded protein consists of an N-terminal death domain and a C-terminal...   More...

TICAM2 (Toll-Like Receptor Adaptor Molecule 2):

TIRP is a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (IL1R\; MIM 147810) (TIR) domain-containing adaptor protein involved in Toll receptor signaling (see TLR4\; MIM 603030).[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004].   More...
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TIRAP (Toll-Interleukin 1 Receptor (TIR) Domain Containing Adaptor Protein): TIRAP Antikörper TIRAP ELISA Kits TIRAP Proteine
TICAM1 (Toll-Like Receptor Adaptor Molecule 1): TICAM1 Antikörper TICAM1 ELISA Kits TICAM1 Proteine

Inhibitoren

IRAK3 (Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase 3):

This gene encodes a member of the interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase protein family. Members of this family are essential components of the Toll/IL-R immune signal transduction pathways. This protein is primarily expressed in monocytes and macrophages and functions as a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor signaling. Mutations in this gene are associated with a susceptibility to...   More...
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SOCS1 (Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 1): SOCS1 Antikörper SOCS1 ELISA Kits SOCS1 Proteine
TNFAIP3 (Tumor Necrosis Factor, alpha-Induced Protein 3): TNFAIP3 Antikörper TNFAIP3 ELISA Kits TNFAIP3 Proteine
TAX1BP1 (Tax1 (Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type I) Binding Protein 1): TAX1BP1 Antikörper TAX1BP1 ELISA Kits TAX1BP1 Proteine
TANK (TRAF Family Member-Associated NFKB Activator): TANK Antikörper TANK ELISA Kits TANK Proteine
PTPN1 (Protein tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 1): PTPN1 Antikörper PTPN1 ELISA Kits PTPN1 Proteine
PTPN6 (Protein-tyrosine Phosphatase 1C): PTPN6 Antikörper PTPN6 ELISA Kits PTPN6 Proteine
SARM1 (Sterile alpha and TIR Motif Containing 1): SARM1 Antikörper   SARM1 Proteine

Signalübertragung

IRAK4 (Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase 4):

This gene encodes a kinase that activates NF-kappaB in both the Toll-like receptor (TLR) and T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling pathways. The protein is essential for most innate immune responses. Mutations in this gene result in IRAK4 deficiency and recurrent invasive pneumococcal disease. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq,...   More...

TRAF3 (TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 3):

TRAF6 (TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6):

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IRAK1 (Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase 1): IRAK1 Antikörper IRAK1 ELISA Kits IRAK1 Proteine
IRAK2 (Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase 2): IRAK2 Antikörper IRAK2 ELISA Kits IRAK2 Proteine
IKBKE - Inhibitor of kappa Light Polypeptide Gene Enhancer in B-Cells, Kinase epsilon: IKBKE Antikörper IKBKE ELISA Kits IKBKE Proteine
RIPK1 (Receptor (TNFRSF)-Interacting serine-threonine Kinase 1): RIPK1 Antikörper RIPK1 ELISA Kits RIPK1 Proteine
TAB1 (TGF-beta Activated Kinase 1/MAP3K7 Binding Protein 1): TAB1 Antikörper TAB1 ELISA Kits TAB1 Proteine
TAB2 (TGF-beta Activated Kinase 1/MAP3K7 Binding Protein 2): TAB2 Antikörper TAB2 ELISA Kits TAB2 Proteine
TAB3 (TGF-beta Activated Kinase 1/MAP3K7 Binding Protein 3): TAB3 Antikörper TAB3 ELISA Kits TAB3 Proteine
ECSIT (ECSIT Homolog (Drosophila)): ECSIT Antikörper ECSIT ELISA Kits ECSIT Proteine

NF-kappaB

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IKBKB (Inhibitor of kappa Light Polypeptide Gene Enhancer in B-Cells, Kinase beta): IKBKB Antikörper IKBKB ELISA Kits IKBKB Proteine
IKBKG (Inhibitor of kappa Light Polypeptide Gene Enhancer in B-Cells, Kinase gamma): IKBKG Antikörper IKBKG ELISA Kits IKBKG Proteine
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NFKBIA (Nuclear Factor of kappa Light Polypeptide Gene Enhancer in B-Cells Inhibitor, alpha): NFKBIA Antikörper NFKBIA ELISA Kits NFKBIA Proteine

Mitogen Aktivierte Protein Kinasen

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MAP2K3 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3): MAP2K3 Antikörper MAP2K3 ELISA Kits MAP2K3 Proteine
MAP2K4 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 4): MAP2K4 Antikörper MAP2K4 ELISA Kits MAP2K4 Proteine
MAP2K6 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 6): MAP2K6 Antikörper MAP2K6 ELISA Kits MAP2K6 Proteine
MAP2K7 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 7): MAP2K7 Antikörper MAP2K7 ELISA Kits MAP2K7 Proteine
CREB1 (CAMP Responsive Element Binding Protein 1): CREB1 Antikörper CREB1 ELISA Kits CREB1 Proteine
MAPK8 - JNK: MAPK8 Antikörper MAPK8 ELISA Kits MAPK8 Proteine
MAPK9 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 9): MAPK9 Antikörper MAPK9 ELISA Kits MAPK9 Proteine
MAPK10 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 10): MAPK10 Antikörper MAPK10 ELISA Kits MAPK10 Proteine

Interforen Regulationsfaktoren

IRF7 (Interferon Regulatory Factor 7):

IRF7 encodes interferon regulatory factor 7, a member of the interferon regulatory transcription factor (IRF) family. IRF7 has been shown to play a role in the transcriptional activation of virus-inducible cellular genes, including interferon beta chain genes. Inducible expression of IRF7 is largely restricted to lymphoid tissue. Multiple IRF7 transcript variants have been identified, although...   More...

IRF3 - Interferon Regulatory Factor 3

IRF5 (Interferon Regulatory Factor 5):

Zellüberleben

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AKT1 - AKT: AKT1 Antikörper AKT1 ELISA Kits AKT1 Proteine
AKT2 (V-Akt Murine Thymoma Viral Oncogene Homolog 2): AKT2 Antikörper AKT2 ELISA Kits AKT2 Proteine
AKT3 (V-Akt Murine Thymoma Viral Oncogene Homolog 3 (Protein Kinase B, Gamma)): AKT3 Antikörper AKT3 ELISA Kits AKT3 Proteine

Apoptose

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CASP8 - Caspase 8: CASP8 Antikörper CASP8 ELISA Kits CASP8 Proteine