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Autophagy is the regulated, self-degradative process of the cell that disassembles unnecessary or dysfunctional components. The lysosomal pathway is evolutionarily conserved and initiates engulfment, degradation and recycling of cellular contents including long-lived proteins and organelles thus promoting cell survival. Autophagy is induced by conditions of nutrient deprivation as well as physiological and pathological processes such as development, differentiation, neurodegenerative diseases, stress, infection, obesity, and cancer.

Three major forms of autophagy are commonly described: Macroautophagy, Microautophagy, and mitophagy, along with chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). Macroautophagy is the primary pathway and initiates isolation of cytoplasmic targets via a double-membraned vesicle - the autophagosome. The autophagosome then travels through the cytoplasm of the cell to a lysosome, and the two organelles fuse. Within the newbuilt autolysosome, the contents of the autophagosome are degraded via acidic lysosomal hydrolases.

Macroautophagy is executed by more than 30 autophagy-related (Atg) genes. In mammals, amino acids, growth factors and ROS regulate the activity of protein kinases mTOR and AMPK. These two are crucial for autophagy regulation through inhibitory phosphorylation of the Unc-51-like kinases ULK1 and ULK2. ULK is part of a protein complex containing Atg13, Atg101 and FIP200 and phosphorylates and activates Beclin-1. The active ULK and Beclin-1 complexes re-localize to the site of autophagosome initiation, the phagophore, where they both contribute to the activation of downstream autophagy components. The class III PI(3) kinase complex mediates the nucleation of autophagosomes. VPS34 phosphorylates the lipid phosphatidylinositol and generates phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P) on the surface of the phagophore. Downstream of PtdIns3P production, WIPI2B links PtdIns(3)P to LC3 lipidation through ATG12–ATG5-ATG16L1 (E3-like) complex. The two ubiquitin-like pathways of ATG8 and ATG12 induce the elongation and expansion of the phagophore membrane. Lipidated LC3 form of LC3, known as LC3-II, contributes to the closure of autophagosomes and enables the docking of specific cargos and adaptor proteins such as Sequestosome-1/p62. The completed autophagosome then fuses with the help of SNARE and UVRAG with a lysosome. The contents of the autolysosome are degraded and their basic modules are released from the vesicle through the action of permeases.

Mitophagy is the selective degradation of mitochondria by autophagy. It is triggered by defective mitochondria following damage or oxidative stress. Mitophagy prevents cellular degeneration caused by accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria. NIX and its regulator BNIP3 mediate mitophagy in mammals as well as PINK1 and parkin proteins. The occurrence of mitophagy is not limited to the damaged mitochondria but also involves undamaged ones.

Microautophagy, involves the direct engulfment of cytoplasmic material and organelles, such as the peroxisome and the nucleus into the lysosome. This occurs by invagination, meaning the inward folding of the lysosomal membrane, or cellular protrusion.

Chaperone-mediated autophagy differs from the other autophagic pathways as it does not involve vesicle formation but, rather, a direct translocation of a specific set of proteins across the lysosomal membrane. The cytosolic chaperone hsc70, plays a major role in target recognition and transport to the lysosom. Targeted proteins must have an amino acid sequence a with pentapeptide motif biochemically related to KFERQ in order to be bound by hsc70.

For more information, especially concerning the role of autophagy in diseases, visit our resource site.


BECN1 - Beclin 1

Beclin-1 participates in the regulation of autophagy and has an important role in development, tumorigenesis, and neurodegeneration (Zhong et al., 2009 [PubMed 19270693]).[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2010].   More...
Antigene in dieser Kategorie:
AKT1S1 - AKT1 Substrate 1 (Proline-Rich): AKT1S1 Antikörper AKT1S1 ELISA Kits AKT1S1 Proteine
BCL2 (B-Cell CLL/lymphoma 2): BCL2 Antikörper BCL2 ELISA Kits BCL2 Proteine
MLST8 (MTOR Associated Protein, LST8 Homolog (S. Cerevisiae)): MLST8 Antikörper MLST8 ELISA Kits MLST8 Proteine
ULK1 (Unc-51 Like Kinase 1 (C. Elegans)): ULK1 Antikörper ULK1 ELISA Kits ULK1 Proteine

Elongation and Closure

E2F1 (E2F Transcription Factor 1):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the E2F family of transcription factors. The E2F family plays a crucial role in the control of cell cycle and action of tumor suppressor proteins and is also a target of the transforming proteins of small DNA tumor viruses. The E2F proteins contain several evolutionally conserved domains found in most members of the family. These domains include a...   More...

PIK3C3 (Phosphoinositide-3-Kinase, Class 3):

Catalytic subunit of the PI3K complex that mediates formation of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate which plays a key role in initiation and...
Antigene in dieser Kategorie:
ATG12 (Autophagy Related 12): ATG12 Antikörper ATG12 ELISA Kits ATG12 Proteine
ATG13 (Autophagy Related 13): ATG13 Antikörper ATG13 ELISA Kits ATG13 Proteine
CASC5 (Cancer Susceptibility Candidate 5): CASC5 Antikörper CASC5 ELISA Kits  
COL3A1 (Collagen, Type III, alpha 1): COL3A1 Antikörper COL3A1 ELISA Kits COL3A1 Proteine
FN1 - Fibronectin: FN1 Antikörper FN1 ELISA Kits FN1 Proteine
GABARAP - GABA(A) Receptor-Associated Protein: GABARAP Antikörper GABARAP ELISA Kits GABARAP Proteine
GABARAPL1 (GABA(A) Receptor-Associated Protein Like 1): GABARAPL1 Antikörper GABARAPL1 ELISA Kits GABARAPL1 Proteine
GABARAPL2 - GABA(A) Receptor-Associated Protein-Like 2: GABARAPL2 Antikörper GABARAPL2 ELISA Kits GABARAPL2 Proteine
GSN - Gelsolin: GSN Antikörper GSN ELISA Kits GSN Proteine
LHCGR - Luteinizing Hormone/choriogonadotropin Receptor: LHCGR Antikörper LHCGR ELISA Kits LHCGR Proteine
LAMP1 (Lysosomal-Associated Membrane Protein 1): LAMP1 Antikörper LAMP1 ELISA Kits LAMP1 Proteine
LAMP2 (Lysosomal-Associated Membrane Protein 2): LAMP2 Antikörper LAMP2 ELISA Kits LAMP2 Proteine
MAP1LC3A - Microtubule-Associated Protein 1 Light Chain 3 alpha: MAP1LC3A Antikörper MAP1LC3A ELISA Kits MAP1LC3A Proteine
MAP1LC3B - Microtubule-Associated Protein 1 Light Chain 3 beta: MAP1LC3B Antikörper MAP1LC3B ELISA Kits MAP1LC3B Proteine
MAP1LC3C (Microtubule-Associated Protein 1 Light Chain 3 gamma): MAP1LC3C Antikörper   MAP1LC3C Proteine

Cargo and Adaptor Proteins

SQSTM1 (Sequestosome 1):

This gene encodes a multifunctional protein that binds ubiquitin and regulates activation of the nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-kB) signaling pathway. The protein functions as a scaffolding/adaptor protein in concert with TNF receptor-associated factor 6 to mediate activation of NF-kB in response to upstream signals. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding either the same or different...   More...
Antigene in dieser Kategorie:
ATG3 (ATG3 Autophagy Related 3 Homolog (S. Cerevisiae)): ATG3 Antikörper ATG3 ELISA Kits ATG3 Proteine
ATG5 (ATG5 Autophagy Related 5 Homolog (S. Cerevisiae)): ATG5 Antikörper ATG5 ELISA Kits ATG5 Proteine
ATG7 - ATG7 Autophagy Related 7 Homolog (S. Cerevisiae): ATG7 Antikörper ATG7 ELISA Kits ATG7 Proteine
FKBP8 - FK506 Binding Protein 8, 38kDa: FKBP8 Antikörper FKBP8 ELISA Kits FKBP8 Proteine
KHDRBS1 (KH Domain Containing, RNA Binding, Signal Transduction Associated 1): KHDRBS1 Antikörper KHDRBS1 ELISA Kits KHDRBS1 Proteine
SLC39A1 - Solute Carrier Family 39 (Zinc Transporter), Member 1: SLC39A1 Antikörper SLC39A1 ELISA Kits SLC39A1 Proteine
Slc39a2 - Solute Carrier Family 39 (Zinc Transporter), Member 2: Slc39a2 Antikörper Slc39a2 ELISA Kits  
SLC39A3 (Solute Carrier Family 39 (Zinc Transporter), Member 3): SLC39A3 Antikörper SLC39A3 ELISA Kits SLC39A3 Proteine
SLC39A4 - Solute Carrier Family 39 (Zinc Transporter), Member 4: SLC39A4 Antikörper SLC39A4 ELISA Kits SLC39A4 Proteine

Lysosome Fusion and Degradation

GSTT2 (Glutathione S-Transferase theta 2):

Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Has a sulfatase activity.   More...
Antigene in dieser Kategorie:
CCL3 (Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 3): CCL3 Antikörper CCL3 ELISA Kits CCL3 Proteine
CXCL1 - Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 1 (Melanoma Growth Stimulating Activity, Alpha): CXCL1 Antikörper CXCL1 ELISA Kits CXCL1 Proteine
CXCL14 (Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 14): CXCL14 Antikörper CXCL14 ELISA Kits CXCL14 Proteine
CXCL3 (Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 3): CXCL3 Antikörper CXCL3 ELISA Kits CXCL3 Proteine
SH3GLB1 (SH3-Domain GRB2-Like B1 (Endophilin)):      
SH3GLB1 (SH3-Domain GRB2-Like Endophilin B1): SH3GLB1 Antikörper SH3GLB1 ELISA Kits SH3GLB1 Proteine


CD44 (CD44):

The protein encoded by this gene is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. It is a receptor for hyaluronic acid (HA) and can also interact with other ligands, such as osteopontin, collagens, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). This protein participates in a wide variety of cellular functions including lymphocyte activation, recirculation...   More...

INS - Insulin

After removal of the precursor signal peptide, proinsulin is post-translationally cleaved into three peptides: the B chain and A chain peptides,...

RAF1 (V-Raf-1 Murine Leukemia Viral Oncogene Homolog 1):

The members of the zinc fingers and homeoboxes gene family are nuclear homodimeric transcriptional repressors that interact with the A subunit of...
Antigene in dieser Kategorie:
BMI1 (BMI1 Polycomb Ring Finger Oncogene): BMI1 Antikörper BMI1 ELISA Kits BMI1 Proteine
CEBPB (CCAAT/enhancer Binding Protein (C/EBP), beta): CEBPB Antikörper CEBPB ELISA Kits CEBPB Proteine
CDC25B (Cell Division Cycle 25 Homolog B (S. Pombe)): CDC25B Antikörper CDC25B ELISA Kits CDC25B Proteine
COL1A1 (Collagen, Type I, alpha 1): COL1A1 Antikörper COL1A1 ELISA Kits COL1A1 Proteine
COL3A1 (Collagen, Type III, alpha 1): COL3A1 Antikörper COL3A1 ELISA Kits COL3A1 Proteine
CDKN1A (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1A): CDKN1A Antikörper CDKN1A ELISA Kits CDKN1A Proteine
CDKN1A (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1)): CDKN1A Antikörper CDKN1A ELISA Kits CDKN1A Proteine
CDKN1B (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1B (p27, Kip1)): CDKN1B Antikörper CDKN1B ELISA Kits CDKN1B Proteine
CDKN2A - Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2A (Melanoma, P16, Inhibits CDK4): CDKN2A Antikörper    
GDNF (Glial Cell Line Derived Neurotrophic Factor): GDNF Antikörper GDNF ELISA Kits GDNF Proteine
GSK3b - GSK3 beta: GSK3b Antikörper GSK3b ELISA Kits  
HRAS - Harvey Rat Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog: HRAS Antikörper    
HRAS1 - Harvey Rat Sarcoma Virus Oncogene 1: HRAS1 Antikörper HRAS1 ELISA Kits HRAS1 Proteine
HMGA1 - High Mobility Group AT-Hook 1: HMGA1 Antikörper HMGA1 ELISA Kits HMGA1 Proteine
INHBA (Inhibin, beta A): INHBA Antikörper INHBA ELISA Kits INHBA Proteine
ING1 - Inhibitor of Growth Family, Member 1: ING1 Antikörper ING1 ELISA Kits ING1 Proteine
ING2 (Inhibitor of Growth Family, Member 2): ING2 Antikörper ING2 ELISA Kits ING2 Proteine
IGF1 (Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1): IGF1 Antikörper IGF1 ELISA Kits IGF1 Proteine
IGF1R (Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor): IGF1R Antikörper IGF1R ELISA Kits IGF1R Proteine
IGFBP3 (Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3): IGFBP3 Antikörper IGFBP3 ELISA Kits IGFBP3 Proteine
IGFBP5 (Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 5): IGFBP5 Antikörper IGFBP5 ELISA Kits IGFBP5 Proteine
IGF1 (Insulin-Like Growth Factor I):     IGF1 Proteine
IGF1R (Insulin-Like Growth Factor I Receptor): IGF1R Antikörper IGF1R ELISA Kits  
JUN - C-JUN: JUN Antikörper JUN ELISA Kits JUN Proteine
p38 (MAP kinase p38): p38 Antikörper p38 ELISA Kits  
MMP14 (Matrix Metallopeptidase 14 (Membrane-inserted)): MMP14 Antikörper MMP14 ELISA Kits MMP14 Proteine
MDM2 (Mdm2 P53 Binding Protein Homolog): MDM2 Antikörper MDM2 ELISA Kits  
MDM2 (Mdm2 P53 Binding Protein Homolog (Mouse)):   MDM2 ELISA Kits  
MDM2 (Mdm2, p53 E3 Ubiquitin Protein Ligase Homolog (Mouse)): MDM2 Antikörper MDM2 ELISA Kits MDM2 Proteine
FRAP1 - MTOR: FRAP1 Antikörper FRAP1 ELISA Kits FRAP1 Proteine
MAPK1 - ERK2: MAPK1 Antikörper MAPK1 ELISA Kits MAPK1 Proteine
MAPK14 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 14): MAPK14 Antikörper MAPK14 ELISA Kits MAPK14 Proteine
MAP2K1 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 1): MAP2K1 Antikörper MAP2K1 ELISA Kits MAP2K1 Proteine
MAP2K3 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3): MAP2K3 Antikörper MAP2K3 ELISA Kits MAP2K3 Proteine
PTEN (Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog): PTEN Antikörper    
SERPINB2 (Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 2): SERPINB2 Antikörper SERPINB2 ELISA Kits SERPINB2 Proteine
PLAT (Plasminogen Activator, Tissue): PLAT Antikörper PLAT ELISA Kits PLAT Proteine
PLAU (Plasminogen Activator, Urokinase): PLAU Antikörper PLAU ELISA Kits PLAU Proteine
PCNA (Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen): PCNA Antikörper PCNA ELISA Kits PCNA Proteine
RB1CC1 (RB1-Inducible Coiled-Coil 1): RB1CC1 Antikörper RB1CC1 ELISA Kits  
RB1 - Retinoblastoma 1: RB1 Antikörper RB1 ELISA Kits RB1 Proteine
SPARC (Secreted Protein, Acidic, Cysteine-Rich (Osteonectin)): SPARC Antikörper SPARC ELISA Kits SPARC Proteine
SERPINB2 - serpin Peptidase Inhibitor, Clade B (Ovalbumin), Member 2: SERPINB2 Antikörper SERPINB2 ELISA Kits SERPINB2 Proteine
SERPINE1 (serpin Peptidase Inhibitor, Clade E (Nexin, Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1), Member 1): SERPINE1 Antikörper SERPINE1 ELISA Kits SERPINE1 Proteine
SMAD4 (SMAD Family Member 4): SMAD4 Antikörper SMAD4 ELISA Kits SMAD4 Proteine
SMAD3 (SMAD, Mothers Against DPP Homolog 3): SMAD3 Antikörper SMAD3 ELISA Kits SMAD3 Proteine
TEP1 (Telomerase-Associated Protein 1): TEP1 Antikörper TEP1 ELISA Kits  
THBS1 - Thrombospondin 1: THBS1 Antikörper THBS1 ELISA Kits THBS1 Proteine
TGFB1 (Transforming Growth Factor, beta 1): TGFB1 Antikörper TGFB1 ELISA Kits TGFB1 Proteine
TNFSF15 (Tumor Necrosis Factor (Ligand) Superfamily, Member 15): TNFSF15 Antikörper TNFSF15 ELISA Kits TNFSF15 Proteine
TP53 - p53: TP53 Antikörper TP53 ELISA Kits TP53 Proteine
HRAS (V-Ha-Ras Harvey Rat Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog): HRAS Antikörper HRAS ELISA Kits HRAS Proteine
BRAF (V-Raf Murine Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog B1): BRAF Antikörper BRAF ELISA Kits BRAF Proteine
SRC (V-Src Sarcoma (Schmidt-Ruppin A-2) Viral Oncogene Homolog (Avian)): SRC Antikörper SRC ELISA Kits SRC Proteine
VTN - Vitronectin: VTN Antikörper VTN ELISA Kits VTN Proteine

Interferon mediated Regulation

IFNG (Interferon gamma):

This gene encodes a member of the type II interferon family. The protein encoded is a soluble cytokine with antiviral, immunoregulatory and anti-tumor properties and is a potent activator of macrophages. Mutations in this gene are associated with aplastic anemia.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009].   More...
Antigene in dieser Kategorie:
IRF1 (Interferon Regulatory Factor 1): IRF1 Antikörper IRF1 ELISA Kits IRF1 Proteine
IRF5 (Interferon Regulatory Factor 5): IRF5 Antikörper IRF5 ELISA Kits IRF5 Proteine
IRF7 (Interferon Regulatory Factor 7): IRF7 Antikörper IRF7 ELISA Kits IRF7 Proteine
IFI27 - Interferon, alpha-Inducible Protein 27: IFI27 Antikörper IFI27 ELISA Kits IFI27 Proteine
IFNB1 (Interferon, beta 1, Fibroblast): IFNB1 Antikörper IFNB1 ELISA Kits IFNB1 Proteine
IFI16 (Interferon, gamma-Inducible Protein 16): IFI16 Antikörper IFI16 ELISA Kits IFI16 Proteine
IL1A (Interleukin 1 alpha): IL1A Antikörper IL1A ELISA Kits IL1A Proteine
IL1B (Interleukin 1, beta): IL1B Antikörper IL1B ELISA Kits IL1B Proteine
IL24 - Interleukin 24: IL24 Antikörper IL24 ELISA Kits IL24 Proteine
IL-3 (Interleukin 3): IL-3 Antikörper IL-3 ELISA Kits IL-3 Proteine
IL6 - Interleukin 6: IL6 Antikörper IL6 ELISA Kits IL6 Proteine
Il6ra - IL6RA: Il6ra Antikörper Il6ra ELISA Kits  
IL6ST (Interleukin 6 Signal Transducer (Gp130, Oncostatin M Receptor)): IL6ST Antikörper IL6ST ELISA Kits IL6ST Proteine
IL6ST (Interleukin 6 Signal Transducer): IL6ST Antikörper IL6ST ELISA Kits IL6ST Proteine
IL8 - Interleukin 8: IL8 Antikörper IL8 ELISA Kits IL8 Proteine
IL6R - IL-6 Receptor: IL6R Antikörper IL6R ELISA Kits IL6R Proteine