Apoptose

Der programmierte Zelltod bzw. die Apoptose ist ein wichtiger physiologischer Prozess in mehrzelligen Organismen. Das Gleichgewicht zwischen Zellwachstum und –teilung sowie der Zelltodrate erlaubt eine dynamische Regulierung der Zellmenge in Abhängigkeit von inneren und äußeren Parametern. Beispielsweise während der Entwicklung des Nervensystems von Wirbeltieren durchläuft etwa die Hälfte der Zellen kurz nach ihrer Bildung Apoptose. In adulten Organismen ist dieses Gleichgewicht von essentieller Bedeutung zur Aufrechterhaltung unter anderem der Größe und Funktion von Organen und Gewebe. Die Dysregulation dieses Gleichgewichts führt in vielen Fällen zu Krebs. Anders als bei der Nekrose, die aufgrund des Zerfalls betroffener Zellen zu gefährlichen Entzündungsreaktionen führen kann, entfaltet sich die Apoptose auf sehr organisiertem Weg: Während die innere Struktur abgebaut und die DNA fragmentiert wird, schrumpft die Zelle und verdichtet sich. Die sterbende Zelle wird sofort von Nachbarzellen oder Makrophagen phagozytiert.

Im Zentrum des apoptotischen Prozesses stehen Caspasen, eine Familie von Cysteinproteasen. Sie werden als Procaspasen produziert, die erst infolge der Spaltung durch andere Caspasen aktiviert werden. Diese Caspasekaskade wird dadurch ausgelöst, dass die Initiator-Procaspasen (z.B. Procaspasen 8, 9, 10) mithilfe von Adaptorproteinen aggregiert werden und somit die gegenseitige Aktivierung aufgrund der niedrigen Proteaseaktivität oder Konformationsänderungen der Procaspasen begünstigen. Die aktivierten Caspasen aktivieren ihrerseits Effektor-Caspasen (z.B. Caspasen 3, 6, und 7) und treiben somit den apoptotischen Prozess voran. Ihre Wirkung wird von Proteinen der Bcl-2-Familie (u.a. Bcl-2, Bcl-xL) sowie IAP (Apoptose-Inhibitoren, z.B. BIRC1, XIAP) reguliert.

Apoptotische Prozesse folgen einer Vielzahl von Signalwegen. Extrinsische Todesrezeptor-Signalwege werden durch die Bindung von Liganden an eine Familie von Todesrezeptorproteinen (z.B. FAS- und TRAIL-Rezeptoren), die eine zytoplasmatische Todesdomäne beinhalten, hervorgerufen. Der intrinsische Signalweg ist an der Reaktion auf DNA-Schäden und mitochondrialen Stress beteiligt und ist von besonderer Bedeutung bei der Entstehung von Krebserkrankungen. Neben diesen kanonischen apoptotischen Signalwegen gibt es ebenso Caspase-unabhängige Signalwege, die beispielsweise durch Granzym A und B ausgelöst werden. Man nimmt an, dass sich diese Caspase-unabhängigen Signalwege zur Bekämpfung von Viren, die Caspasen inhibieren, herausgebildet haben.

Pathway Abbildung als PDF downloaden

Caspases

CASP9 - Caspase 9

This gene encodes a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes which undergo proteolytic processing at conserved aspartic residues to produce two subunits, large and small, that dimerize to form the active enzyme. This protein is processed...   More...

CASP3 - Caspase 3

CASP8 - Caspase 8

Antigene in dieser Kategorie:

Mitochondrial

BCL2 (B-Cell CLL/lymphoma 2):

This gene encodes an integral outer mitochondrial membrane protein that blocks the apoptotic death of some cells such as lymphocytes. Constitutive expression of BCL2, such as in the case of translocation of BCL2 to Ig heavy chain locus, is thought to be the cause of follicular lymphoma. Two transcript variants, produced by alternate splicing, differ in their C-terminal ends. [provided by...   More...

BCL2L1 (BCL2-Like 1):

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the BCL-2 protein family. BCL-2 family members form hetero- or homodimers and act as anti- or pro-apoptotic regulators that are involved in a wide variety of cellular activities. The proteins encoded by this gene are located at the outer mitochondrial membrane, and have been shown to regulate outer mitochondrial membrane channel (VDAC) opening. VDAC...   More...
Antigene in dieser Kategorie:
BAK1 (BCL2-Antagonist/killer 1): BAK1 Antikörper BAK1 ELISA Kits BAK1 Proteine
BAD (BCL2-Associated Agonist of Cell Death): BAD Antikörper BAD ELISA Kits BAD Proteine
BAX (BCL2-Associated X Protein): BAX Antikörper BAX ELISA Kits BAX Proteine
BID (BH3 Interacting Domain Death Agonist): BID Antikörper BID ELISA Kits BID Proteine
CYCS - Cytochrome C: CYCS Antikörper CYCS ELISA Kits CYCS Proteine
DIABLO (Second Mitochondria-Derived Activator of Caspase): DIABLO Antikörper DIABLO ELISA Kits DIABLO Proteine

Inhibitor of Apoptosis

BIRC2 (Baculoviral IAP Repeat Containing 2):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a family of proteins that inhibits apoptosis by binding to tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors TRAF1 and TRAF2, probably by interfering with activation of ICE-like proteases. This encoded protein inhibits apoptosis induced by serum deprivation and menadione, a potent inducer of free radicals. Alternatively spliced transcript variants...   More...

NAIP (NLR Family, Apoptosis Inhibitory Protein):

XIAP (X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis):

Antigene in dieser Kategorie:
BIRC3 (Baculoviral IAP Repeat Containing 3): BIRC3 Antikörper BIRC3 ELISA Kits BIRC3 Proteine
BIRC5 (Baculoviral IAP Repeat-Containing 5): BIRC5 Antikörper BIRC5 ELISA Kits BIRC5 Proteine
EPR1 (Early-Phytochrome-Responsive1): EPR1 Antikörper    

Receptor

FASL (Fas Ligand (TNF Superfamily, Member 6)):

TNFSF12 (Tumor Necrosis Factor (Ligand) Superfamily, Member 12):

TNF - Tumor Necrosis Factor

TNFRSF1B (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 1B):

Antigene in dieser Kategorie:
CRADD (CASP2 and RIPK1 Domain Containing Adaptor with Death Domain): CRADD Antikörper CRADD ELISA Kits CRADD Proteine
CFLAR (CASP8 and FADD-Like Apoptosis Regulator): CFLAR Antikörper CFLAR ELISA Kits CFLAR Proteine
CYLD (Cylindromatosis (Turban Tumor Syndrome)): CYLD Antikörper CYLD ELISA Kits CYLD Proteine
DR4 (Drought-Repressed 4 Protein): DR4 Antikörper    
FAS (Fas (TNF Receptor Superfamily, Member 6)): FAS Antikörper FAS ELISA Kits FAS Proteine
FADD (Fas (TNFRSF6)-Associated Via Death Domain): FADD Antikörper FADD ELISA Kits FADD Proteine
RIPK1 (Receptor (TNFRSF)-Interacting serine-threonine Kinase 1): RIPK1 Antikörper RIPK1 ELISA Kits RIPK1 Proteine
TRAF1 (TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 1): TRAF1 Antikörper TRAF1 ELISA Kits TRAF1 Proteine
TRAF2 (TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 2): TRAF2 Antikörper TRAF2 ELISA Kits TRAF2 Proteine
TRAF3 (TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 3): TRAF3 Antikörper TRAF3 ELISA Kits TRAF3 Proteine
TRAF5 (TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 5): TRAF5 Antikörper TRAF5 ELISA Kits TRAF5 Proteine
TRADD (TNFRSF1A-Associated Via Death Domain): TRADD Antikörper TRADD ELISA Kits TRADD Proteine
TNFSF10 (Tumor Necrosis Factor (Ligand) Superfamily, Member 10): TNFSF10 Antikörper TNFSF10 ELISA Kits TNFSF10 Proteine
TNFRSF10A (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 10a): TNFRSF10A Antikörper TNFRSF10A ELISA Kits TNFRSF10A Proteine
TNFRSF10B (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 10b): TNFRSF10B Antikörper TNFRSF10B ELISA Kits TNFRSF10B Proteine
TNFRSF10C (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 10c, Decoy Without An Intracellular Domain): TNFRSF10C Antikörper TNFRSF10C ELISA Kits TNFRSF10C Proteine
TNFRSF10D (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 10d, Decoy with Truncated Death Domain): TNFRSF10D Antikörper TNFRSF10D ELISA Kits TNFRSF10D Proteine
TNFRSF12A (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 12A): TNFRSF12A Antikörper TNFRSF12A ELISA Kits TNFRSF12A Proteine
TNFRSF1A (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 1A): TNFRSF1A Antikörper TNFRSF1A ELISA Kits TNFRSF1A Proteine
TNFRSF25 (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 25): TNFRSF25 Antikörper TNFRSF25 ELISA Kits TNFRSF25 Proteine

Cytoplasmatisch

YWHAQ (tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-Monooxygenase Activation Protein, theta Polypeptide):

YWHAZ (tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-Monooxygenase Activation Protein, zeta Polypeptide):

Antigene in dieser Kategorie:
APAF1 (Apoptotic Peptidase Activating Factor 1): APAF1 Antikörper APAF1 ELISA Kits APAF1 Proteine

Endoplasmatisches Retikulum

CAPNL1 (Calpain 1, Large Subunit):

The calpains, calcium-activated neutral proteases, are nonlysosomal, intracellular cysteine proteases. The mammalian calpains include ubiquitous, stomach-specific, and muscle-specific proteins. The ubiquitous enzymes consist of heterodimers with distinct large, catalytic subunits associated with a common small, regulatory subunit. This gene encodes the large subunit of the ubiquitous enzyme,...   More...

TREX1 (three Prime Repair Exonuclease 1):

This gene encodes a nuclear protein with 3' exonuclease activity. The encoded protein may play a role in DNA repair and serve as a proofreading function for DNA polymerase. Mutations in this gene result in Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome, chilblain lupus, Cree encephalitis, and other diseases of the immune system. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep...   More...

CAPN2 (Calpain 2, (M/II) Large Subunit):

CAPNS1 - Calpain S1

Antigene in dieser Kategorie:
NME1 (Non-Metastatic Cells 1, Protein (NM23A) Expressed in): NME1 Antikörper NME1 ELISA Kits NME1 Proteine
SET (SET Nuclear Oncogene): SET Antikörper SET ELISA Kits  

Granzyme

Gzmb - GZMB

Cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells share the remarkable ability to recognize, bind, and lyse specific target cells. They are thought to protect their host by lysing cells bearing on their surface 'nonself' antigens, usually peptides or proteins resulting from infection by intracellular pathogens. The protein encoded by this gene is crucial for the rapid induction of...   More...
Antigene in dieser Kategorie:
GZMA (Granzyme A (Granzyme 1, Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte-Associated serine Esterase 3)): GZMA Antikörper GZMA ELISA Kits GZMA Proteine
PRF1 - Perforin 1: PRF1 Antikörper PRF1 ELISA Kits PRF1 Proteine

Nuclear

PARP1 (Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase 1):

This gene encodes a chromatin-associated enzyme, poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferase, which modifies various nuclear proteins by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. The modification is dependent on DNA and is involved in the regulation of various important cellular processes such as differentiation, proliferation, and tumor transformation and also in the regulation of the molecular events involved in the recovery...   More...

LMNA - Lamin A/C

LMNB1 - Lamin B1

Antigene in dieser Kategorie:
AIFM1 (Apoptosis-Inducing Factor, Mitochondrion-Associated, 1): AIFM1 Antikörper AIFM1 ELISA Kits AIFM1 Proteine
ENDOG - Endonuclease G: ENDOG Antikörper ENDOG ELISA Kits ENDOG Proteine
DFFA (DNA Fragmentation Factor, 45kDa, alpha Polypeptide): DFFA Antikörper DFFA ELISA Kits DFFA Proteine
DFFB (DNA Fragmentation Factor, 40kDa, beta Polypeptide (Caspase-Activated DNase)): DFFB Antikörper DFFB ELISA Kits DFFB Proteine
LMNB2 - Lamin B2: LMNB2 Antikörper LMNB2 ELISA Kits LMNB2 Proteine
CYFIP2 (Cytoplasmic FMR1 Interacting Protein 2): CYFIP2 Antikörper   CYFIP2 Proteine

DNA damage

ABL1 (C-Abl Oncogene 1, Non-Receptor tyrosine Kinase):

The ABL1 protooncogene encodes a cytoplasmic and nuclear protein tyrosine kinase that has been implicated in processes of cell differentiation, cell division, cell adhesion, and stress response. Activity of c-Abl protein is negatively regulated by its SH3 domain, and deletion of the SH3 domain turns ABL1 into an oncogene. The t(9\;22) translocation results in the head-to-tail fusion of the...   More...

ATR (Ataxia Telangiectasia and Rad3 Related):

ATM (Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated):

Antigene in dieser Kategorie:
CHEK1 (Checkpoint Kinase 1): CHEK1 Antikörper CHEK1 ELISA Kits CHEK1 Proteine
CHEK2 (Checkpoint Kinase 2): CHEK2 Antikörper CHEK2 ELISA Kits CHEK2 Proteine
CCNA1 - Cyclin A1: CCNA1 Antikörper CCNA1 ELISA Kits CCNA1 Proteine
TRIM29 (Tripartite Motif Containing 29): TRIM29 Antikörper TRIM29 ELISA Kits TRIM29 Proteine

Apoptose Marker

ANXA5 - Annexin V

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the annexin family of calcium-dependent phospholipid binding proteins some of which have been implicated in membrane-related events along exocytotic and endocytotic pathways. Annexin 5 is a phospholipase A2 and protein kinase C inhibitory protein with calcium channel activity and a potential role in cellular signal transduction, inflammation, growth...   More...

APOC1 (Apolipoprotein C-I):

KRT18 (Keratin 18):

Antigene in dieser Kategorie:
AIFM1 (Apoptosis-Inducing Factor, Mitochondrion-Associated, 1): AIFM1 Antikörper AIFM1 ELISA Kits AIFM1 Proteine
BAX (BCL2-Associated X Protein): BAX Antikörper BAX ELISA Kits BAX Proteine
BCL2 (B-Cell CLL/lymphoma 2): BCL2 Antikörper BCL2 ELISA Kits BCL2 Proteine
CASP1 - Caspase 1: CASP1 Antikörper CASP1 ELISA Kits CASP1 Proteine
CASP3 - Caspase 3: CASP3 Antikörper CASP3 ELISA Kits CASP3 Proteine
FAS (Fas (TNF Receptor Superfamily, Member 6)): FAS Antikörper FAS ELISA Kits FAS Proteine
FASL (Fas Ligand (TNF Superfamily, Member 6)): FASL Antikörper FASL ELISA Kits FASL Proteine
CLU - Clusterin: CLU Antikörper CLU ELISA Kits CLU Proteine
ITGAM - CD11b: ITGAM Antikörper ITGAM ELISA Kits ITGAM Proteine
MAPK1 - ERK2: MAPK1 Antikörper MAPK1 ELISA Kits MAPK1 Proteine
TP53 - p53: TP53 Antikörper TP53 ELISA Kits TP53 Proteine
PARP1 (Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase 1): PARP1 Antikörper PARP1 ELISA Kits PARP1 Proteine
BIRC5 (Baculoviral IAP Repeat-Containing 5): BIRC5 Antikörper BIRC5 ELISA Kits BIRC5 Proteine
EPR1 (Early-Phytochrome-Responsive1): EPR1 Antikörper